Ramakrishna Rao Chitturi Director, International Trade Facilitation Centre, The Federation of Andhra Pradesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Hyderabad, India. E mail: Introduction


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NameRamakrishna Rao Chitturi Director, International Trade Facilitation Centre, The Federation of Andhra Pradesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Hyderabad, India. E mail: Introduction
A typeDocumentation


Growing Indo-Taiwan Economic Relations
Ramakrishna Rao Chitturi

Director, International Trade Facilitation Centre,

The Federation of Andhra Pradesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Hyderabad, India.

E Mail: rrc.itfc@gmail.com
Introduction
Taiwan is a mountainous island located in the Pacific Ocean, off the southeastern coast of China. The island is bordered on the east by the Pacific Ocean and is separated from China to the west by the Taiwan Strait. Japan lies to its north, the Philippines to its south and Vietnam to the southwest. The Chinese call the island Taiwan (Tayouan) meaning terraced bay.
In 1590, the first western ship sailing through the Taiwan Strait on the way to Japan sighted Taiwan and Jan Huygen Van Linschoten, a Dutch navigator on a Portuguese ship exclaimed “Ilha Formosa” meaning “Beautiful island”. This is the origin of Taiwan’s other name, Formosa. However, whenever, they came across a beautiful island on the sea, Portuguese sailors had the habit of calling it “Ilha Formosa”, so there are more than ten islands in Africa, South America and Asia which bear the same name. Nevertheless, Formosa has become the proper name of Taiwan, and is now commonly used among older western generations. Another name referred to in the past was “Bao Dao or Treasure island” because of the myth of vast treasures which were allegedly hidden on the island by pirate, Sinbad.
Taiwan covers an area of 35,980 square kilometers that is, about the combined size of Belgium and Luxembourg. Nearly half of the island is covered by beautiful forests and mountains. Its population currently stands at around 22,858,872 (July, 2007 est.).
Taiwan society is culturally and ethnically diverse yet largely harmonious. It has different ethnic groups. The largest group is the Taiwanese including Hakka who make up about 84 percent of the population. The people of mainland Chinese account for about 14 percent and the reminder is composed of the island’s indigenous ethnic groups. The religious groups of island include a mixture of Buddhist including Tantric and Taoist who form 93 percent; Christians including Roman Catholics make up to 4.5 percent and 2.5 percent others.
The official language of Taiwan is Mandarin or Putonghua (Northern Chinese). Indigenous people speak Austronesia languages – Indonesian, Polynesian and Malanesian. The study of English as a foreign language is encouraged and it forms the language of foreign trade.
As a result of Chinese defeat in the first Sino-Japanese war in 1895, Taiwan was ceded to Japan. After World War II ended, China regained Taiwan. Japan left a legacy of law and order, economic and educational development, but it also ruled with an iron hand. This helped develop Taiwan’s agriculture, industry, roads, railroads, schools and hospitals.
Diplomatic Isolation
After the Chinese Communists conquered mainland China in 1949, two million Chinese Nationalists (Kuomintang) fled to Taiwan. Under the leadership of Chiang Kai -Shek, they established a government on the basis of 1946 Constitution for all China and made Taipei, capital of the Republic of China (ROC). Over the next 5 decades, the ruling military authorities gradually democratised. In 2000, Taiwan underwent its first peaceful transfer of power from the Nationalists to the Democratic Progressive Party.
The ROC was a founding member of the United Nations established in 1945. In 1971, People’s Republic of China (PRC) became a member of United Nations in place of Taiwan (ROC). Since then, most of the members of the United Nations severed diplomatic relations with Taiwan in favor of China. Back in 1950, India recognised China (PRC) not the rival regime in Taipei and relations with the island have been tenuous ever since.
Economy
Taiwan has few natural resources except mountain forests. Therefore, its economy heavily depends on manufacturing and foreign trade. Exports have provided the primary impetus for industrialisation. The island runs a trade surplus, and foreign exchange reserves are the world’s third largest after China and Japan. Strong trade performance in 2006 pushed Taiwan’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate above 4 percent. 80 percent of the island’s entrepreneurs are small and medium enterprises. Taiwan along with Hong Kong (China), South Korea and Singapore constitute the Asian Newly Industrializing Economies (NIES).
Banking and Currency
Taiwan has in all 42 banks comprising 13 national and 29 international. Significant domestic banks are Central Bank of China, Mega International Commercial Bank, Bank of Taiwan, Fubon Bank, Taipei Bank and Asia Trust. Prominent international banks include Barclays Bank, BNP Paribas, Bank of America, Citibank, Deutsche Bank AG, Fortis Bank, J P Morgan chase, The HSBC, Scotia Bank, Standard Bank of South Africa, Standard Chartered Bank, Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation, UBS AG, United Overseas Bank and Wells Fargo Bank.
The unit of Taiwanese currency is Taiwanese New Dollar – TWD. The exchange rate of one unit of Indian Rupee(INR) as on 13.2.2008 = 0.798411 TWD (Subdivisions: 1 INR = 100 paise; 1 TWD = 100 cents.)
Cities, Ports and Airports
The island country has 39 cities. A few of them are Bade, Bancio, Caoyo, Chiayi, Douliou, Hualien, Kaosiung, Keelung, Pigtung, Taichung, Tainan and Yilan. Hualien, Kaosiun, Keelung and Su-ao or Suao contain seaports. International airports are located in Kaohsiung – Kaohsiung International Airport also known as Hsiaogang Airport or Kaohsiung Hsiaogang Airport and in Taoyuan - Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport. Domestic Airports are at – Chiayi, Cimei, Hengchun, Hualien, Kinmen, Lanyu, Lyudao, Makung, Matsu Beign, Matsu Nangan, Pingtung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei Songshan, Taitung, Template and Wangan.
Bilateral Trade
In the absence of formal diplomatic ties with Taiwan, because of China’s objections to anything other than the “one nation policy”, non-governmental organizations - The India Taipei Association (ITA) and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Centre (TECC) were established in Taipei and New Delhi respectively, in 1995 to promote non-governmental contacts and interactions between India and Taiwan, and to facilitate business, tourism, cultural and people-to-people exchanges. ITA was also authorised to provide all consular and passport services. The Taiwan External Trade Development Council (TAITRA) works closely with ITA to help boost trade and economic exchange between India and Taiwan. The Taiwan- India Cooperation Council (TICC), a government backed private association created in February 2006 in Taipei and New Delhi fosters closer ties with India.
Despite the absence of formal diplomatic relations, cordial and substantive relations between India and Taiwan are not only continuously growing but are being further substantially strengthened.
India’s Exports to Taiwan
India’s major exports to Taiwan consists of petroleum oils, aluminum, not alloyed, unwrought, refined copper, cathodes and sections of cathodes, cotton yarn, cloth, single of combed and uncombed fibers, bleached, granite, ferroalloys (alloys of iron with chromium, manganese, silicon, tungsten, molybdenum or vanadium used in steel making) , crude or roughly trimmed, iron ores and concentrates other than roasted iron pyrites, naphtha, mineral non-industrial diamonds, worked, but not mounted or set; wheat and muslin, acrylic hydrocarbons, insecticides, organics chemicals, inorganic chemicals, dyes and pigments, pharmaceuticals, specialty chemicals for antibiotics, auto components and fruits such as apples, kiwi fruit, plums, peaches, grapefruit and exotic fruits – durian (jackfruit) and mangosteen.
India’s Imports From Taiwan
India’s imports from Taiwan are electrical apparatus, digital handsets, desktops, personal computers, scanners, LCD-TFT panels and computer peripherals, unrecorded compact discs or magnet optical discs, tyre cords, fabric of high tenacity yarn, nylon and other polyamides, monolithic integrated circuits, without software, pigments and preparations, partially oriented filament yarn, artificial fibers, textiles, , PVC synthetic leather, numerically controlled injection moulding machines, machinery for rubber and plastics, printing and packing machine, polyvinyl chloride not mixed with any other substances, in primary forms, petroleum oils, polycetals, plastics and automobile parts.
Analysis of Bilateral Trade
The growth of two-pronged trade between India and Taiwan is steady and stable. The trade between the countries increased to US$ 2,442.43 million in 2005 from US$ 1,944.07 million in 2004 representing an upswing of 25.63 percent. The trend continued with a steady pace. Bilateral trade moved on to US$ 2,716.34 million in 2006 from US$ 2,442.43 million in 2005 showing an increasing of 11.21 percent. During 2004 to 2006, the mutual trade had gone from US$ 1,944.07 to US$ 7,102.84 million with an overall increase of 265.35 percent in just 3 years. It reflects the growing strengths of two powerful economies of Asia. The bilateral trade figures during 2004-2006 are below.

IN US$ MILLION

YEAR

INDIA’S EXPORTS TO TAIWAN

INDIA’S IMPORTS FROM TAIWAN

TOTAL


2004

861.77

1,082.30

1,944.07

2005

859.57

1,582.86

2,442.43

2006

1,245.27

1,471.01

2,716.34

Total

2,966.61

4,136.26

7,102.84

Source: Taiwan Customs
Chung-Fang Hsu, Deputy Director General, Bureau of Foreign Trade, Taiwan Ministry of Economic Affairs, said that her country saw India as an important trade partner in future in the context of the south Asian market. Bilateral trade had registered a sharp upswing in recent years, with the aggregate touching US$ 2.71 billion in 2006, up by 11 percent over 2005. This was mainly due to the efforts of TICC and the government of Taiwan in strengthening the growing economic and bilateral trade relations with India.
Walter Yeh, Executive Vice- President, Taiwan External Trade Development Council, said that Taiwan’s Bureau of Foreign Trade, ranked India as the 20th largest trading partner. Bilateral trade till June 2007 had enhanced by 68 percent over that achieved during the same phase the precious year. Considering, the speed at which bilateral trade is picking up, it is expected to touch US$ 10 billion in the next few years with a proposed annual growth rate of 15 percent.
Balance of Trade
Balance of trade or differential value between exports and imports is calculated by subtracting a country’s imports from its exports during a specified period. If a country exports more than it imports, its balance of trade is said to be positive and that is, exports exceed imports. Such a balance of trade is generally considered to be favorable. If a country imports more than it exports, its balance of trade is said to be negative, and that is, imports exceed exports. Such a balance of trade is considered to be unfavorable.
During 2004 to 2006, the total value of India’s exports to Taiwan was US$ 2,966.61 million as against the total value of imports from Taiwan at US$ 4,136.23 million. As India’s imports from Taiwan exceeded its exports by US$ 1,169.62 million, balance of trade is unfavorable to India and favorable to Taiwan.
Reasons For India’s Growing Imports From Taiwan
The reasons for Taiwan’s favorable balance of trade with India may be traced to growing demand for Taiwan’s computer parts and peripherals, mobile telephones and accessories in Indian gray market, capital goods such as hand tools and machinery, auto parts and accessories coupled with gradual reduction in import duties. Moreover, Taiwan External Trade Development Council (TAITRA) with its World Trade Center Liaison offices in Chennai and Mumbai are providing Taiwanese companies with information about market trends and developments in India. They are extending to companies in Taiwan with an analysis of regional competitiveness and bilateral trade issues. They are also acting as a reliable source of import for Indian importers through their frequent product catalogue shows and exhibitions in different parts of the country.
Market Potential
Substantial demand as well as potential exist for Indian exports. Taiwan is a major market for organic chemicals and inorganic chemicals, dyes and chemicals, active pharma ingredients (APIS), bulk drugs and formulations, fruits such as mangoes, grapes, apples, pomegranate and figs, auto components like tubes and hoses of vulcanised rubber other than hard rubber, pumps and vacuum pumps and transmission shafts, aluminum, copper, iron and steel products.
But there is an apprehension in certain quarters in India that improvement of economic ties between India and Taiwan would offend China. Such fears, may, however, be viewed as fearless. Many countries have been doing business with Taiwan without diplomatic relations. China’s next-door neighbor, Vietnam is a close and significant partner of Taiwan in trade and investment. In 2002, Taiwan was number one foreign investor in Vietnam surpassing Singapore. Moreover, it would be ironical for China to attempt to dissuade any country from developing economic ties with Taiwan in as much as in all of Asia, the country most eager to curry favor with Taiwanese people is none other than China itself. Consider the following.
One China is not opposed to any country developing economic links with Taiwan, and two, the taishang (Taiwanese businessmen in China) have overtime, developed considerable political leverage on both sides of Taiwan straits. The majority of taishang are for maintaining the current status quo. Three, despite restrictions on cross-straits links, China has overtaken the United States to become Taiwan’s largest market and, in 2006, its second-largest source of imports after Japan. China is also the island’s number one destination for foreign direct investment. Four, a major portion of the imported metals into Taiwan is processed for the mainland China market or diverted to China for use by Taiwanese companies on the mainland. Taiwan, thus, remains a critical conduit for the Chinese market and is viewed as an alternative route.
Therefore, there is no reason for India to neglect greater economic interaction with Taiwan. India needs to pursue, more result oriented and skillful economic diplomacy and take advantage of mutually beneficial opportunities with Taiwan in international trade and investment. “Even China has realised the need for, and benefited from, economic relations with its renegade province”, rightly states, Mukul G Asher, Professor of Public Policy, National University of Singapore.
Investment
The estimated GDP of India in 2006 was US$ 805.5 billion. In 2007, the value of India’s exports was US$ 160 billion. As India marches towards achieving US$ 1000 billion in GDP and US$ 500 billion in international trade in goods and services, it needs massive investments in infrastructure and in manufacturing. In 2007, the foreign direct investment (FDI) equity flow into the country was US$ 17 billion. A recent study report of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) places India in the second place behind China but ahead of United States, the Russian Federation and Brazil in the category of most attractive investment hotspots for the year 2007. India now has emerged as a Golden Investment Destination (GID). Taiwan with its staggering GDP of US$ 347.7 billion and reserves of foreign exchange and gold at US$ 270.8 billion in 2006 is seen as a potential source of investment in India.
Like trade, the value of Taiwan FDI in India is also growing over the years, from US$ 22 million in 1996 to US$ 74 million in 2002 and it mostly occurred in electronics and computer hardware. With the signing of an Agreement on Promotion and Protection of Investment by the Directors General of India Taipei Association, Taipei and Taipei Economic and Cultural Center, New Delhi on October 17, 2002 an increasing number of Taiwanese entrepreneurs recognised India as a powerful economic opportunity. The agreements of this type protect and promote foreign investment through legally binding rights and obligations. They protect investors with the protection and predictability they need when investing in foreign markets.
According to a business delegation of Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) New Delhi, that had visited Taiwan from 2-5 September 2007, “Taiwanese investments in India could grow many folds from the current US$ 400 million in the next few years”. Thomas Chang, Director of Taipei World Trade Center’s Liaison office in India said that 90 Taiwanese companies are currently operating in India with around US$ 500 million investments made so far. With the investments on the anvil, the FDI equity flow from Taiwan to India is expected to touch US$ 700 million.
Areas of Investment
In terms of FDI enabling polices of the government of India, Taiwanese companies could focus their investment in information technology (IT), information communication technology (ICT), electronics, machinery, leather and footwear, apparel, liquid crystal display (LCD) and semiconductors, integrated circuits (IC) design, special economic zones (SEZ), and infrastructure development.

Establishment of manufacturing units in India shall be mutually advantageous to India and Taiwan. The Taiwanese capital and its technological and managerial expertise can give boost to India’s industrial growth. From Taiwan’s angle, it can diversify its global risks by a deeper investment relation with India as other East Asian economies – Singapore and Malaysia are doing. Taiwan can gain from India’s huge domestic demand and integrate Indian market in its global strategy of supply chain, design and knowledge resources and also benefit from the vast pool of India’s competitive skilled and technical manpower. “India can serve as an important springboard for Taiwanese businesses to extend their reach into Europe” – asserted, Ho-Mei-Yueh, a former Minister of Economic Affairs ,Taiwan.
Diplomatic underinvestment
India stands to benefit from partnering with Taiwan’s globally competitive manufacturing sector, especially in high technology areas like computer hardware and semiconductor technology. Joint ventures, collaborations and technology transfers with Taiwanese companies, thus hold the promise of substantial benefits. A closer relation with Taiwan would also help Indian companies access the Chinese and Hong Kong markets. But, Taiwan is largely off business agenda of Indian companies because of alleged apprehensions of diplomatic underinvestment –absence of formal diplomatic relations between India and Taiwan.
Taiwan’s projects on the Anvil
(A) Tamil Nadu
Two of Taiwan’s largest private companies, ASUSTeK Computer Inc, a computer hardware manufacturer with a more than 50 percent market share globally is currently exploring the possibilities of starting a manufacturing facility in India. Formosa Plastic Group, the largest private sector company in Taiwan with diversified interests including petrochemicals and energy is looking at putting up, a power plant in Chennai. Foxconn, one of the world’s largest manufactures of electronic components – computer and mobile accessories is reported to have decided to invest US$ 1.5 billion in the next 3 years to establish an SEZ in Tamil Nadu with Motorola of USA to produce mobile accessories.
The government of Tamil Nadu is planning an SEZ in Chennai in an area of 500 acres aiming to attract small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of Taiwan. The proposed SEZ which may be christened – The Taiwan Economic Zone is likely to have Taiwanese SME manufacturers of electronics, hardware components, light engineering products and foot components. The SMEs from Taiwan are expected to compete along side big houses and plan to tap the European markets.
Taiwan choose Chennai (formerly Madras) as nucleus of investments considering its locational advantages. Chennai is the third-largest commercial and industrial hub of India after Mumbai and Bangalore. The city contributes more than 50 percent of India’s leather exports. It is the second-largest exporter of software after Bangalore accounting for 14 percent of India’s total software exports in 2007. The city has 30 percent of India’s automobile industry and 35 percent of auto-components industry. The prominent automobile units located in the city include – Hyundai, Ford, BMW, Mitsubishi, TVS Motors, Ashok Layland, Nissan, Royal Enfield and Madras Rubber Factory (MRF).
Chennai International Airport connects South Asia, South East Asia, the Middle East, Europe and North America. Situated in the Coromandal Coast in South-East India, Chennai is served by 2 major seaports (Chennai and Ennore) with Chennai port handling automobiles and general industrial cargo, while Ennore port handling dry bulk cargo. Chennai has comprehensive rail and road links. It is connected to rest of the country with 2 railway terminals and 5 national highways (NH). 35 countries have consulates in the city.
(B) Andhra Pradesh
The Andhra Pradesh government is promoting a 75 kilometer stretch between Krishnapatnam and Tada on the national highway (NH V) as a manufacturing industry region (MIR). This road stretch has natural advantages with easy access to Chennai International Airport and three seaports – Krishnapatnam, Chennai and Ennore. The Andhra Pradesh government has also decided to offer all the incentives on par with the Tamil Nadu government.
The Taiwan industry together with Taiwan government reported to have approached the Andhra Pradesh government for an allotment of 2,500 acres of land to start a multi product SEZ of electronics and engineering industries on the national highway of Krishnapatnam-Tada, close to Chennai. The investment is estimated to be around US$ 6.3 billion with a potential of creating 10,000 jobs; but no final decision on the proposal seems to have taken place so far.
Conclusion
Hitherto, Taiwanese businessmen lacked essential inputs on the Indian market information such as industrial investment, government policies and economic development. Recently, a Taiwanese Business Facilitation Desk was setup in the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan to offer consulting and business intelligence to Taiwanese companies interested in doing business with India. This initiative is expected to take the bilateral trade and investment from Taiwan to a higher level. While, this is a positive initiative, a few more issues and areas need to be resolved, and addressed to take the bilateral trade and Taiwanese investments in India to a still higher level. They are conclusion of a double taxation avoidance treaty, mutual recognition of technical degrees, better air links, issuance of hassle free work permits and employment visas. In order to resolve these issues, the existing institutional arrangements for bilateral commercial diplomacy – India Taipei Association (ITA) , Taiwan Economic and Cultural Center (TECC) and Taiwan- India Cooperation Council (TICC) in Taipei and in New Delhi respectively, need to be qualitatively and quantitatively strengthened.

NOTE: The author accords general permission to readers – students, scholars, researchers and public to freely utilize and quote the contents of this article.




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