Supplementary Table Highly diverse stimuli induce chemokine expression in blood and tissue cells

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NameSupplementary Table Highly diverse stimuli induce chemokine expression in blood and tissue cells
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Supplementary Table 2. Highly diverse stimuli induce chemokine expression in blood and tissue cells








IL-1, TNFa


Numerous blood and tissue cells


IFN-, IFN-

CXCL10, -11, CCL3, -7

Monocytes, neutrophils, astrocytes, fibroblasts



CXCL9, -10, -11

Monocytes, macrophages, T cells, tissue cells



CXCL8, CCL2, -3, -22, -26

Endothelial cells, epithelial cells, SMCs, fibroblasts



CXCL8, CCL2, -22, -26

Monocytes, tissue cells







CXCL1, -8, CCL2

Epithelial cells, fibroblasts, chondrocytes



CXCL10, -13, CCL2, -5, -19, -21

Tissue cells



CD40L (CD40)c


B cells, DCs, endothelial cells, epithelial cells



H2O2, oxygen radicals

CXCL8, CCL2, -3, -4

Macrophages, DCs, tissue cells


-Defensin-2 (TLR4)

CCL3, -4, -5



Histamine (HR1, HR2)

CXCL8, CCL2, -3, -4, -5

DCs, tissue cells


Eosinophil MBP





CXCL5, -7, -8, CCL2, -5

Eosinophils, platelets, tissue cells



CCL1, -3, -4

NK cells


Fibrin, fibrinogen (TLR4)

CXCL8, CCL2, -3, -4

Monocytes, endothelial cells


FasL (Fas)


Endothelial cells, epithelial cells


Immune complexes (FcRs)

CXCL8, -10, CCL2, -3, -4

Monocytes, DCs, mast cells, fibroblasts


Complement (CRs)

CXCL8, CCL2, -3, -4

Monocytes, epithelial cells



Human HSPs (TLR2, TLR4)

CXCL8, CCL3, -4, -5

Monocytes, neutrophils, T cells



CXCL1, -8

Keratinocytes, endothelial cells


Shear stress


Endothelial cells




Numerous tumor cells



Antigen (TCR, BCR)



Cell wall components (TLR2)

CXCL1, -8, CCL2, -5

Monocytes, macrophages, DCs, epithelial cells


LPS, microbial HSPs


Numerous blood and tissue cells

[1–3,107, 108]

(TLR4, CD14)

Flagellin (TLR5)


Epithelial cells




Macrophages, B cells, DCs, astrocytes


Viral dsRNA (TLR3)


Monocytes, macrophages, tissue cells




Monocytes, macrophages, tissue cells



CXCL5, -8





Numerous blood and tissue cells


aAbbreviations: BCR, B cell antigen recepor; CR, complement receptor; DC, dendritic cell; FcR, immunoglobulin Fc receptor; fMLP, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine; FPR, fMLP receptor; HR, histamin receptor; HSP, heat shock protein; IFN-, interferon-; IL-1, interleukin-1; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; MBP, major basic protein; PAR, protease-activated receptor; SMCs, smooth muscle cells; TCR, T cell receptor; TLR, Toll-like receptor; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; UL16 BP, human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein UL16 binding protein; UVB, ultraviolet B radiation.

bMultiple' refers to more than six different chemokines produced.

cReceptors for stimuli (except for cytokines).


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15 Mochizuki, M. et al. (1998) IL-4 induces eotaxin: a possible mechanism of selective eosinophil recruitment in helminth infection and atopy. J. Immunol. 160, 60–68

16 Bonecchi, R. et al. (1998) Divergent effects of interleukin-4 and interferon- on macrophage-derived chemokine production: an amplification circuit of polarized T helper 2 responses. Blood 92, 2668–2671

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19 Badolato, R. et al. (1997) Interleukin-15 (IL-15) induces IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 production in human monocytes. Blood 90, 2804–2809

20 Andoh, A. et al. (2001) Cooperation of interleukin-17 and interferon- on chemokine secretion in human fetal intestinal epithelial cells. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 125, 56–63

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23 Kawaguchi, M. et al. (2001) Modulation of bronchial epithelial cells by IL-17. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 108, 804–809

24 Cuff, C.A. et al. (1998) Lymphotoxin alpha3 induces chemokines and adhesion molecules: insight into the role of LTà in inflammation and lymphoid organ development. J. Immunol. 161, 6853–6860

25 Degli-Esposti, M.A. et al. (1997) Activation of the lymphotoxin  receptor by cross-linking induces chemokine production and growth arrest in A375 melanoma cells. J. Immunol. 158, 1756–1762

26 Ngo, V.N. et al. (1999) Lymphotoxin  and tumor necrosis factor are required for stromal cell expression of homing chemokines in B and T cell areas of the spleen. J. Exp. Med. 189, 403–412

27 Cuff, C.A. et al. (1999) Differential induction of adhesion molecule and chemokine expression by LT3 and LT in inflammation elucidates potential mechanisms of mesenteric and peripheral lymph node development. J. Immunol. 162, 5965–5972

28 Shakhov, A.N. et al. (2000) Gene profiling approach in the analysis of lymphotoxin and TNF deficiencies. J. Leukoc. Biol. 68, 151–157

29 Sallusto, F. et al. (1999) Distinct patterns and kinetics of chemokine production regulate dendritic cell function. Eur. J. Immunol. 29, 1617–1625

30 Kasama, T. et al. (2002) Interaction of monocytes with vascular endothelial cells synergistically induces interferon -inducible protein 10 expression through activation of specific cell surface molecules and cytokines. Cell. Immunol. 219, 131–139

31 Monaco, C. et al. (2002) T cell-mediated signaling to vascular endothelium: induction of cytokines, chemokines, and tissue factor. J. Leukoc. Biol. 71, 659–668

32 Companjen, A.R. et al. (2002) CD40 ligation-induced cytokine production in human skin explants is partly mediated via IL-1. Int. Immunol. 14, 669–676

33 DeForge, L.E. et al. (1993) Regulation of interleukin 8 gene expression by oxidant stress. J. Biol. Chem. 268, 25568–25576

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35 Massion, P.P. et al. (1996) Dimethyl sulfoxide decreases interleukin-8-mediated neutrophil recruitment in the airways. Am. J. Physiol. 271, L838–L843

36 Verhasselt, V. et al. (1998) Oxidative stress up-regulates IL-8 and TNF- synthesis by human dendritic cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 28, 3886–3890

37 Satriano, J.A. et al. (1993) Oxygen radicals as second messengers for expression of the monocyte chemoattractant protein, JE/MCP-1, and the monocyte colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1, in response to tumor necrosis factor- and immunoglobulin G. Evidence for involvement of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent oxidase. J. Clin. Invest. 92, 1564–1571

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39 Jaramillo, M. and Olivier, M. (2002) Hydrogen peroxide induces murine macrophage chemokine gene transcription via extracellular signal-regulated kinase- and cyclic adenosine 5-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent pathways: involvement of NF-B, activator protein 1, and cAMP response element binding protein. J. Immunol. 169, 7026–7038

40 Biragyn, A. et al. (2002) Toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of dendritic cells by -defensin 2. Science 298, 1025–1029

41 Caron, G. et al. (2001) Histamine induces CD86 expression and chemokine production by human immature dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 166, 6000–6006

42 Aoki, Y. et al. (1998) Leukotriene B4 mediates histamine induction of NF-B and IL-8 in human bronchial epithelial cells. Am. J. Physiol. 274, L1030–L1039

43 Kita, H. et al. (1995) Eosinophil major basic protein induces degranulation and IL-8 production by human eosinophils. J. Immunol. 154, 4749–4758

44 Page, S.M. et al. (1999) Stimulation of neutrophil interleukin-8 production by eosinophil granule major basic protein. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 21, 230–237

45 Uehara, A. et al. (2002) Activation of human oral epithelial cells by neutrophil proteinase 3 through protease-activated receptor-2. J. Immunol. 169, 4594–4603

46 Temkin, V. et al. (2002) Tryptase activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein-1 pathway in human peripheral blood eosinophils, causing cytokine production and release. J. Immunol. 169, 2662–2669

47 Asokananthan, N. et al. (2002) Activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1, PAR-2, and PAR-4 stimulates IL-6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 release from human respiratory epithelial cells. J. Immunol. 168, 3577–3585

48 Shpacovitch, V.M. et al. (2002) Agonists of proteinase-activated receptor 2 induce cytokine release and activation of nuclear transcription factor B in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. J. Invest. Dermatol. 118, 380–385

49 Hou, L. et al. (1998) Immunolocalization of protease-activated receptor-2 in skin: receptor activation stimulates interleukin-8 secretion by keratinocytes in vitro. Immunology 94, 356–362

50 Colotta, F. et al. (1994) Expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 by monocytes and endothelial cells exposed to thrombin. Am. J. Pathol. 144, 975–985

51 Marra, F. et al. (1995) Thrombin stimulates proliferation of liver fat-storing cells and expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1: potential role in liver injury. Hepatology 22, 780–787

52 Sower, L.E. et al. (1996) Extracellular activities of human granzyme A. Monocyte activation by granzyme A versus -thrombin. J. Immunol. 156, 2585–2590

53 Sower, L.E. et al. (1996) Extracellular activities of human granzymes. I. Granzyme A induces IL6 and IL8 production in fibroblast and epithelial cell lines. Cell. Immunol. 171, 159–163

54 Kameyoshi, Y. et al. (1992) Cytokine RANTES released by thrombin-stimulated platelets is a potent attractant for human eosinophils. J. Exp. Med. 176, 587–592

55 Car, B.D. et al. (1991) Formation of neutrophil-activating peptide 2 from platelet-derived connective-tissue-activating peptide III by different tissue proteinases. Biochem. J. 275, 581–584

56 Piccardoni, P. et al. (1996) Thrombin-activated human platelets release two NAP-2 variants that stimulate polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Thromb. Haemost. 76, 780–785

57 Cosman, D. et al. (2001) ULBPs, novel MHC class I-related molecules, bind to CMV glycoprotein UL16 and stimulate NK cytotoxicity through the NKG2D receptor. Immunity 14, 123–133

58 Kubin, M. et al. (2001) ULBP1, 2, 3: novel MHC class I-related molecules that bind to human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein UL16, activate NK cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 31, 1428–1437

59 Qi, J. and Kreutzer, D.L. (1995) Fibrin activation of vascular endothelial cells. Induction of IL-8 expression. J. Immunol. 155, 867–876

60 Smiley, S.T. et al. (2001) Fibrinogen stimulates macrophage chemokine secretion through toll-like receptor 4. J. Immunol. 167, 2887–2894

61 Shimada, M. et al. (2001) Ligation of the Fas antigen stimulates chemokine secretion in pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 16, 1060–1067

62 Choi, C. et al. (2001) Fas-induced expression of chemokines in human glioma cells: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Cancer Res. 61, 3084–3091

63 Hagimoto, N. et al. (1999) Induction of interleukin-8 secretion and apoptosis in bronchiolar epithelial cells by Fas ligation. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 21, 436–445

64 Song, X. et al. (2002) Fcgamma receptor I- and III-mediated macrophage inflammatory protein 1 induction in primary human and murine microglia. Infect. Immun. 70, 5177–5184

65 Marsh, C.B. et al. (1995) Monocyte Fc receptor cross-linking induces IL-8 production. J. Immunol. 155, 3161–3167

66 Gonzalez-Espinosa, C. et al. (2003) Preferential signaling and induction of allergy-promoting lymphokines upon weak stimulation of the high affinity IgE receptor on mast cells. J. Exp. Med. 197, 1453–1465

67 Fernandez, N. et al. (2002) Activation of monocytic cells through Fc receptors induces the expression of macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP)-1, MIP-1, and RANTES. J. Immunol. 169, 3321–3328

68 Duque, N. et al. (1997) Interaction of IgA with Fc receptors of human mesangial cells activates transcription factor nuclear factor-B and induces expression and synthesis of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-8, and IFN-inducible protein 10. J. Immunol. 159, 3474–3482

69 Jarvis, J.N. et al. (1997) In vitro induction of proinflammatory cytokine secretion by juvenile rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid immune complexes. Arthritis Rheum. 40, 2039–2046

70 Ember, J.A. et al. (1994) Induction of interleukin-8 synthesis from monocytes by human C5a anaphylatoxin. Am. J. Pathol. 144, 393–403

71 Fukuoka, Y. et al. (2003) Differential cytokine expression of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in response to stimulation by C5a. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 131, 248–253

72 Floreani, A.A. et al. (1998) Expression of receptors for C5a anaphylatoxin (CD88) on human bronchial epithelial cells: enhancement of C5a-mediated release of IL-8 upon exposure to cigarette smoke. J. Immunol. 160, 5073–5081

73 Khalkhali-Ellis, Z. et al. (1999) C1q-containing immune complexes purified from sera of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis patients mediate IL-8 production by human synoviocytes: role of C1q receptors. J. Immunol. 163, 4612–4620

74 Lehner, T. et al. (2000) Heat shock proteins generate beta-chemokines which function as innate adjuvants enhancing adaptive immunity. Eur. J. Immunol. 30, 594–603

75 Wang, Y. et al. (2001) CD40 is a cellular receptor mediating mycobacterial heat shock protein 70 stimulation of CC-chemokines. Immunity 15, 971–983

76 Yamaguchi, H. et al. (1999) Reactivity of monoclonal antibody to HSP60 homologue of Helicobacter pylori with human gastric epithelial cells and induction of IL-8 from these cells by purified H. pylori HSP60. J. Gastroenterol. 34(Suppl 11), 1–5

77 Scholzen, T. et al. (1998) Ultraviolet light and interleukin-10 modulate expression of cytokines by transformed human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). J. Invest. Dermatol. 111, 50–56

78 Strickland, I. et al. (1997) TNF- and IL-8 are upregulated in the epidermis of normal human skin after UVB exposure: correlation with neutrophil accumulation and E-selectin expression. J. Invest. Dermatol. 108, 763–768

79 Kondo, S. et al. (1993) IL-8 gene expression and production in human keratinocytes and their modulation by UVB. J. Invest. Dermatol. 101, 690–694

80 Shyy, J.Y. et al. (1995) Multiple cis-elements mediate shear stress-induced gene expression. J. Biomech. 28, 1451–1457

81 Shyy, J.Y. et al. (1995) The cis-acting phorbol ester ‘12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate’-responsive element is involved in shear stress-induced monocyte chemotactic protein 1 gene expression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92, 8069–8073

82 Lehmann, M.H. et al. (2001) Constitutive expression of MCP-1 and RANTES in the human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U-937. Immunol. Lett. 76, 111–113

83 Steube, K.G. et al. (1999) Constitutive protein expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) by myelomonocytic cell lines and regulation of the secretion by anti- and proinflammatory stimuli. Leuk. Res. 23, 843–849

84 Baba, M. et al. (1996) Constitutive expression of various chemokine genes in human T-cell lines infected with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1: role of the viral transactivator Tax. Int. J. Cancer 66, 124–129

85 Desbaillets, I. et al. (1994) Human astrocytomas and glioblastomas express monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in vivo and in vitro. Int. J. Cancer 58, 240–247

86 Payne, A.S. and Cornelius, L.A. (2002) The role of chemokines in melanoma tumor growth and metastasis. J. Invest. Dermatol. 118, 915–922

87 Van Meir, E. et al. (1992) Interleukin-8 is produced in neoplastic and infectious diseases of the human central nervous system. Cancer Res. 52, 4297–4305

88 Kimura, T. et al. (2002) Expression of lymphocyte-specific chemokines in human malignant glioma: Essential role of LARC in cellular immunity of malignant glioma. Int. J. Oncol. 21, 707–715

89 Kielian, T. et al. (2002) MCP-1 expression in CNS-1 astrocytoma cells: implications for macrophage infiltration into tumors in vivo. J. Neurooncol. 56, 1–12

90 Dhawan, P. and Richmond, A. (2002) Role of CXCL1 in tumorigenesis of melanoma. J. Leukoc. Biol. 72, 9–18

91 Iellem, A. et al. (2000) Inhibition by IL-12 and IFN- of I-309 and macrophage-derived chemokine production upon TCR triggering of human Th1 cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 30, 1030–1039

92 Sallusto, F. et al. (1999) Switch in chemokine receptor expression upon TCR stimulation reveals novel homing potential for recently activated T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 29, 2037–2045

93 Krzysiek, R. et al. (1999) Antigen receptor engagement selectively induces macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1) and MIP-1 chemokine production in human B cells. J. Immunol. 162, 4455–4463

94 Miller, M.D. et al. (1989) A novel polypeptide secreted by activated human T lymphocytes. J. Immunol. 143, 2907–2916

95 Schaniel, C. et al. (1998) Activated murine B lymphocytes and dendritic cells produce a novel CC chemokine which acts selectively on activated T cells. J. Exp. Med. 188, 451–463

96 Cipriani, B. et al. (2000) Activation of C-C -chemokines in human peripheral blood  T cells by isopentenyl pyrophosphate and regulation by cytokines. Blood 95, 39–47

97 Boismenu, R. et al. (1996) Chemokine expression by intraepithelial  T cells. Implications for the recruitment of inflammatory cells to damaged epithelia. J. Immunol. 157, 985–992

98 Wagner, L. et al. (1998) -chemokines are released from HIV-1-specific cytolytic T-cell granules complexed to proteoglycans. Nature 391, 908–911

99 Cocchi, F. et al. (1995) Identification of RANTES, MIP-1, and MIP-1 as the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T cells. Science 270, 1811–1815

100 Swanson, B.J. et al. (2002) RANTES production by memory phenotype T cells is controlled by a posttranscriptional, TCR-dependent process. Immunity 17, 605–615

101 Takeda, K. et al. (2003) Toll-like receptors. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 21, 335–376

102 Pridmore, A.C. et al. (2001) A lipopolysaccharide-deficient mutant of Neisseria meningitidis elicits attenuated cytokine release by human macrophages and signals via toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 but not via TLR4/MD2. J. Infect. Dis. 183, 89–96

103 Yang, S. et al. (2001) Micrococcus luteus teichuronic acids activate human and murine monocytic cells in a CD14- and toll-like receptor 4-dependent manner. Infect. Immun. 69, 2025–2030

104 Wang, Q. et al. (2001) Micrococci and peptidoglycan activate TLR2MyD88IRAKTRAFNIKIKKNF-B signal transduction pathway that induces transcription of interleukin-8. Infect. Immun. 69, 2270–2276

105 Michelsen, K.S. et al. (2001) The role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in bacteria-induced maturation of murine dendritic cells (DCS). Peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid are inducers of DC maturation and require TLR2. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 25680–25686

106 Asai, Y. et al. (2001) Bacterial fimbriae and their peptides activate human gingival epithelial cells through Toll-like receptor 2. Infect. Immun. 69, 7387–7395

107 Tsuboi, N. et al. (2002) Roles of Toll-like receptors in C-C chemokine production by renal tubular epithelial cells. J. Immunol. 169, 2026–2033

108 Gasper, N.A. et al. (2002) Bacterium-induced CXCL10 secretion by osteoblasts can be mediated in part through Toll-like receptor 4. Infect. Immun. 70, 4075–4082

109 Zhou, X. et al. (2003) Flagellin of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli stimulates interleukin-8 production in T84 cells. Infect. Immun. 71, 2120–2129

110 Bourke, E. et al. (2003) The Toll-like receptor repertoire of human B lymphocytes: inducible and selective expression of TLR9 and TLR10 in normal and transformed cells. Blood 102, 956–963

111 Blackwell, S.E. and Krieg, A.M. (2003) CpG-A-induced monocyte IFN--inducible protein-10 production is regulated by plasmacytoid dendritic cell-derived IFN-. J. Immunol. 170, 4061–4068

112 Takeshita, S. et al. (2000) CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induce murine macrophages to up-regulate chemokine mRNA expression. Cell. Immunol. 206, 101–106

113 Gern, J.E. et al. (2003) Double-stranded RNA induces the synthesis of specific chemokines by bronchial epithelial cells. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 28, 731–737

114 Wang, L. et al. (2002) Noncoding RNA danger motifs bridge innate and adaptive immunity and are potent adjuvants for vaccination. J. Clin. Invest. 110, 1175–1184

115 Donninger, H. et al. (2003) Rhinovirus induction of the CXC chemokine epithelial-neutrophil activating peptide-78 in bronchial epithelium. J. Infect. Dis. 187, 1809–1817

116 Lane, B.R. et al. (2002) Interleukin-8 and growth-regulated oncogene  mediate angiogenesis in Kaposi's sarcoma. J. Virol. 76, 11570–11583

117 Si, Q. et al. (2002) Vpr- and Nef-dependent induction of RANTES/CCL5 in microglial cells. Virology 301, 342–353

118 Bosch, I. et al. (2002) Increased production of interleukin-8 in primary human monocytes and in human epithelial and endothelial cell lines after dengue virus challenge. J. Virol. 76, 5588–5597

119 Sarawar, S.R. et al. (2002) Chemokine induction and leukocyte trafficking to the lungs during murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) infection. Virology 293, 54–62

120 Hensley, L.E. et al. (2002) Proinflammatory response during Ebola virus infection of primate models: possible involvement of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. Immunol. Lett. 80, 169–179

121 Choe, W. et al. (2001) Induction of rapid and extensive -chemokine synthesis in macrophages by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and gp120, independently of their coreceptor phenotype. J. Virol. 75, 10738–10745

122 Spain-Santana, T.A. et al. (2001) MIP-1 and MIP-1 induction by dengue virus. J. Med. Virol. 65, 324–330

123 Papadopoulos, N.G. et al. (2001) Rhinovirus infection up-regulates eotaxin and eotaxin-2 expression in bronchial epithelial cells. Clin. Exp. Allergy 31, 1060–1066

124 Julkunen, I. et al. (2001) Molecular pathogenesis of influenza A virus infection and virus-induced regulation of cytokine gene expression. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 12, 171–180

125 Matikainen, S. et al. (2000) Influenza A and sendai viruses induce differential chemokine gene expression and transcription factor activation in human macrophages. Virology 276, 138–147

126 Schnyder-Candrian, S. and Walz, A. (1997) Neutrophil-activating protein ENA-78 and IL-8 exhibit different patterns of expression in lipopolysaccharide- and cytokine-stimulated human monocytes. J. Immunol. 158, 3888–3894

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Supplementary Table Highly diverse stimuli induce chemokine expression in blood and tissue cells iconWhile it is highly, highly recommended that students have access...

Supplementary Table Highly diverse stimuli induce chemokine expression in blood and tissue cells iconDuring dialysis the patient’s blood comes into contact with man-made...


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