T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4


Download 0.6 Mb.
NameT4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4
page1/10
A typeDocumentation
manual-guide.com > manual > Documentation
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10
9/8/98 AC 43.13-1B

Par 7-1 Page 7-1

CHAPTER 7. AIRCRAFT HARDWARE, CONTROL CABLES,

AND TURNBUCKLES

SECTION 1. RIVETS

7-1. GENERAL.

a. Standard solid-shank rivets and the

universal head rivets (AN470) are used in aircraft

construction in both interior and exterior

locations. All protruding head rivets may be

replaced by MS20470 (supersedes AN470)

rivets. This has been adopted as the standard

for protruding head rivets in the United States.

b. Roundhead rivets (AN430) are used in

the interior of aircraft except where clearance

is required for adjacent members.

c. Flathead rivets (AN442) are used in

the interior of the aircraft where interference of

adjacent members does not permit the use of

roundhead rivets.

d. Brazierhead rivets (AN455 and

AN456) are used on the exterior surfaces of

aircraft where flush riveting is not essential.

e. Countersunk head rivets MS20426

(supersedes AN426 100-degree) are used on

the exterior surfaces of aircraft to provide a

smooth aerodynamic surface, and in other applications

where a smooth finish is desired.

The 100-degree countersunk head has been

adopted as the standard in the United States.

Refer to MIL-HD BK5 Metallic Materials and

Elements for Fight Vehicle Structures, and

U.S.A.F./Navy T./O. 1-1A-8, Structural Hardware.”

f. Typical rivet types are shown in table

7-10.

7-2. MATERIAL APPLICATIONS.

a. Rivets made with 2117-T4 are the

most commonly used rivets in aluminum alloy

structures. The main advantage of 2117-T4 is

that it may be used in the condition received

without further treatment.

b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4

rivets are used in aluminum alloy structures

where strength higher than that of the 2117-T4

rivet is needed. See Metallic Materials and

Elements for Flight Vehicle Structures

(MIL-HDBK-5) for differences between the

types of rivets specified here.

c. The 1100 rivets of pure aluminum are

used for riveting nonstructural parts fabricated

from the softer aluminum alloys, such as 1100,

3003, and 5052.

d. When riveting magnesium alloy

structures, 5056 rivets are used exclusively

due to their corrosion-resistant qualities in

combination with the magnesium alloys.

e. Mild steel rivets are used primarily in

riveting steel parts. Do not use galvanized

rivets on steel parts subjected to high heat.

f. Corrosion-resistant steel rivets are

used primarily in riveting corrosion-resistant

steel parts such as firewalls, exhaust stack

bracket attachments, and similar structures.

AC 43.13-1B CHG 1 9/27/01

Page 7-2 Par 7-2

g. Monel rivets are used in special cases

for riveting high-nickel steel alloys and nickel

alloys. They may be used interchangeably

with stainless steel rivets as they are more easily

driven. However, it is preferable to use

stainless steel rivets in stainless steel parts.

h. Copper rivets are used for riveting

copper alloys, leather, and other nonmetallic

materials. This rivet has only limited usage in

aircraft.

i. Hi-Shear rivets are sometimes used in

connections where the shearing loads are the

primary design consideration. Its use is restricted

to such connections. It should be

noted that Hi-Shear rivets are not to be used

for the installation of control surface hinges

and hinge brackets. Do not paint the rivets before

assembly, even where dissimilar metals

are being joined. However, it is advisable to

touch up each end of the driven rivet with

primer to allow the later application of the

general airplane finish.

j. Blind rivets in the NASM20600

through NASM20603 series rivets and the mechanically-

locked stem NAS 1398, 1399,

1738, and 1739 rivets sometimes may be substituted

for solid rivets. They should not be

used where the looseness or failure of a few

rivets will impair the airworthiness of the aircraft.

Design allowable for blind rivets are

specified in MIL-HDBK-5. Specific structural

applications are outlined in NASM33522.

Nonstructural applications for such blind rivets

as NASM20604 and NASM20605 are contained

in NASM33557.

CAUTION: For sheet metal repairs to airframe,

the use of blind rivets must be

authorized by the airframe manufacturer or

approved by a representative of the FAA.

For more information on blind rivets, see page

4-19, f. of this document.

7-3..7-13. [RESERVED.]

9/8/98 AC 43.13-1B

Par 7-14 Page 7-3

SECTION 2. SCREWS

7-14. GENERAL. In general, screws differ

from bolts by the following characteristics.

a. Screws usually have lower material

strength, a looser thread fit, head shapes

formed to engage a screwdriver, and the shank

may be threaded along its entire length without

a clearly defined grip. Screws may be divided

into three basic groups: structural screws, machine

screws, and self-tapping screws. Screws

are marked as required by the applicable Army

Navy (AN), National Aerospace Standard

(NAS), or Military Standard (MS) drawing.

Normally a manufacturer places his trademark

on the head of the screw. Several types of

structural screws are available that differ from

the standard structural bolts only in the type of

head.

b. It would be impossible to cover all

screws that are available to the aviation market;

therefore, only the most frequently used

screws will be discussed in this text. Design

specifications are available in MIL-HDBK-5,

or U.S.A.F./Navy T.O.1-1A-8/NAVAIR

01-1A-8, Structural Hardware.

c. Typical screw types are shown in table

7-11.

7-15. STRUCTURAL SCREWS. NAS502,

NAS503, AN509, NAS220 through NAS227,

and NAS583 through NAS590, may be used

for structural applications, similar to structural

bolts or rivets. These screws are fabricated

from a material with a high-tensile strength

and differ from structural bolts only in the type

of head.

7-16. MACHINE SCREWS. These screws

are available in four basic head styles: flathead

(countersunk), roundhead, fillister, and

socket head.

a. Flathead machine screws (AN505,

AN510, AN507, NAS200, NAS514, NAS517,

and NAS662) are used in countersunk holes

where a flush surface is desired.

b. Roundhead machine screws (AN515

and AN520) are general-purpose screws for

use in nonstructural applications.

c. Fillister head machine screws (AN500

through AN503, AN116901 through

AN116912, AN116913 through AN116924,

AN116962 through AN116990, AN117002

through AN117030, and AN117042 through

AN117070) are general-purpose screws that

may be used as capscrews in light mechanical

applications and are usually drilled for safety

wire.

d. Socket head machine screws

(NAS608 and NAS609) are designed to be

driven into tapped holes by means of internal

wrenches. They may be used in applications

requiring high strength, compactness of assembled

parts, or sinking of heads below surfaces

into fitted holes.

7-17. PANHEAD SCREWS (NAS600

THROUGH NAS606, NAS610 THROUGH

NAS616, NAS623, AND NAS1402

THROUGH NAS1406). Flathead screws

(MS35188 through MS35203), panhead machine

screws (MS35024 through MS35219),

and truss-head screws (AN526) are generalpurpose

screws used where head height is not

important.

7-18. SELF-TAPPING SCREWS. The

self-tapping screw taps their own mating

thread when driven into untapped or punched

holes slightly smaller than the diameter of the

screw. Self-tapping machine screws (AN504

and AN530), may be used to attach minor

AC 43.13-1B 9/8/98

Page 7-4 Par 7-18

nonstructural parts. Self-tapping sheet metal

screws (AN504, AN530, AN531 and NAS548)

may be used in blind applications for the temporary

attachment of sheet metal for riveting

and the permanent assembly of nonstructural

assemblies. The MS21318 is a roundhead

drive screw used in the attachment of nameplates

or in sealing drain holes, and is not intended

to be removed after installation. They

are normally installed by driving the screw into

a drilled hole with a hammer.

CAUTION: Self-tapping screws

should never be used as a replacement

for standard screws, nuts, bolts, or

rivets in any aircraft structure.

7-19. WOOD SCREWS AN545 and

AN550, MS35492 and MS35493 are screws

used in wood structures of aircraft.

7-20..7-33. [RESERVED.]

9/8/98 AC 43.13-1B

Par 7-34 Page 7-5

SECTION 3. BOLTS

7-34. GENERAL. “Hardware” is the term

used to describe the various types of fasteners

and small items used to assemble and repair

aircraft structures and components. Only

hardware with traceability to an approved

manufacturing process or source should be

used. This traceability will ensure that the

hardware is at least equal to the original or

properly-altered condition. Hardware that is

not traceable or is improperly altered, may be

substandard or counterfeit, since their physical

properties cannot be substantiated. Selection

and use of fasteners are as varied as the types

of aircraft; therefore, care should be taken to

ensure fasteners are approved by the Federal

Aviation Administration (FAA) for the intended

installation, repair, or replacement.

Threaded fasteners (bolts/screws) and rivets

are the most commonly used fasteners because

they are designed to carry shear and/or tensile

loads.

7-35. BOLTS. Most bolts used in aircraft

structures are either general-purpose, internalwrenching,

or close-tolerance AN, NAS, or

MS bolts. In certain cases, fastener manufacturers

produce bolts of different dimensions or

greater strength than the standard types. Such

bolts are made for a particular application,

and it is of extreme importance to use like

bolts in replacement. Design specifications

are available in MIL-HDBK-5 or USAF/Navy

T.O. 1-1A-8/NAVAIR 01-1A-8. References

should be made to military specifications and

industry design standards such as NAS, the

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), and

Aerospace Material Standards (AMS). Typical

bolt types are shown in table 7-12.

7-36. IDENTIFICATION. Aircraft bolts

may be identified by code markings on the bolt

heads. These markings generally denote the

material of which the bolt is made, whether the

bolt is a standard AN-type or a special-purpose

bolt, and sometimes include the manufacturer.

a. AN standard steel bolts are marked

with either a raised dash or asterisk, corrosionresistant

steel is marked by a single dash, and

AN aluminum-alloy bolts are marked with two

raised dashes.

b. Special-purpose bolts include highstrength,

low-strength, and close-tolerance

types. These bolts are normally inspected by

magnetic particle inspection methods. Typical

markings include “SPEC” (usually heat-treated

for strength and durability), and an aircraft

manufacturer’s part number stamped on the

head. Bolts with no markings are low strength.

Close-tolerance NAS bolts are marked with

either a raised or recessed triangle. The material

markings for NAS bolts are the same as for

AN bolts, except they may be either raised or

recessed. Bolts requiring non-destructive inspection

(NDI) by magnetic particle inspection

are identified by means of colored lacquer, or

head markings of a distinctive type. (See figure

7-1.)

7-37. GRIP LENGTH. In general, bolt grip

lengths of a fastener is the thickness of the

material the fastener is designed to hold when

two or more parts are being assembled. Bolts

of slightly greater grip length may be used,

provided washers are placed under the nut or

bolthead. The maximum combined height of

washers that should be used is 1/8 inch. This

limits the use of washers necessary to compensate

for grip, up to the next standard grip size.

Over the years, some fasteners specifications

have been changed. For this reason, it is recommended

when making repairs to an aircraft,

whose original hardware is being replaced, that

you must first measure the bolt before ordering,

rather than relying on the parts manual for

AC 43.13-1B 9/8/98

Page 7-6 Par 7-37

FIGURE 7-1. Typical aircraft bolt markings.

identification. In the case of plate nuts, if

proper bolt grip length is not available, add

shims under the plate. All bolt installations

which involve self-locking or plain nuts should

have at least one thread of the bolt protruding

through the nut.

7-38. LOCKING OR SAFETYING OF

BOLTS. Lock or safety all bolts and/or nuts,

except self-locking nuts. Do not reuse cotter

pins or safety wire.

7-39. BOLT FIT. Bolt holes, particularly

those of primary connecting elements, have

close tolerances. Generally, it is permissible to

use the first-lettered drill size larger than the

nominal bolt diameter, except when the AN

hexagon bolts are used in light-drive fit

(reamed) applications and where NAS closetolerance

bolts or AN clevis bolts are used. A

light-drive fit can be defined as an interference

of 0.0006 inch for a 5/8 inch bolt. Bolt holes

should be flush to the surface, and free of debris

to provide full bearing surface for the bolt

head and nut. In the event of over-sized or

elongated holes in structural members, reaming

or drilling the hole to accept the next larger

bolt size may be permissible. Care should be

taken to ensure items, such as edge distance,

clearance, and structural integrity are maintained.

Consult the manufacturer’s structural

repair manual, the manufacturer’s engineering

department, or the FAA before drilling or

reaming any bolt hole in a critical structural

member.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10

Share in:

Related:

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconMemo No: nitor/msr tend:/2017-2018/7975 Dated: 26/08/2017 Bs

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconQuestions Log C:\ftss\Webinars\2017-8-24 vios\QuestionsLog 2017 08 24 11 33. rtf

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconCorrigendum – I following amendments are made in our notice inviting...

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 icon18/03/2017 national circuit championship 16: 17: 25 el wak sports...

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconIft no. Nmp/pur/e-procurement/ T&c-tender-16/2017 Date: 04. 03. 2017...

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconLast Revised: October 26, 2017

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconArendale, D. R., & Hane, A. R. (2017)

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconSummer Intensive 2017

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconHandbook 2017-2018

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconSpring Specials 2017

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconChanges in version 2 (September 20, 2017)

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconTo Prospectus dated July 26, 2017

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconTdtms meeting March 22, 2017

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconPella Corporation October 2017

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 icon2017 women’s soccer roster

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconSession 2017 hst 540-1

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconE. C. E. C summer camp july 2017

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconQuickPlay Pro 0 (August 15, 2017)

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconChevrolet Introduces 2017 Aveo

T4 is that it may be used in the condition received without further treatment b. The 2017-T3, 2017-T31, and 2024-T4 iconManual revised: Summer 2017




manual


When copying material provide a link © 2017
contacts
manual-guide.com
search