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PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1EXAMINATION

A.Examine conditions, with Installer present, for compliance with requirements for installation tolerances and other conditions affecting performance of the Work.

1.For the record, prepare written report, endorsed by Installer, listing conditions detrimental to performance of work.

2.Verify that foundations are within tolerances specified.

3.Verify that reinforcing dowels are properly placed.

B.Before installation, examine rough-in and built-in construction for piping systems to verify actual locations of piping connections.

C.Proceed with installation only after unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected.

3.2INSTALLATION, GENERAL

A.Thickness: Build cavity and composite walls and other masonry construction to full thickness shown. Build single-wythe walls to actual widths of masonry units, using units of widths indicated.

B.Build chases and recesses to accommodate items specified in this and other Sections.

C.Leave openings for equipment to be installed before completing masonry. After installing equipment, complete masonry to match the construction immediately adjacent to opening.

D.Use full-size units without cutting if possible. If cutting is required to provide a continuous pattern or to fit adjoining construction, cut units with motor-driven saws; provide clean, sharp, unchipped edges. Allow units to dry before laying unless wetting of units is specified. Install cut units with cut surfaces and, where possible, cut edges concealed.

E.Select and arrange units for exposed unit masonry to produce a uniform blend of colors and textures.

Subparagraph below is "means and methods" but helps ensure uniformity of blend.

1.Mix units from several pallets or cubes as they are placed.

F.Matching Existing Masonry: Match coursing, bonding, color, and texture of existing masonry.

Retain paragraph below for high-suction brick. A simple test to determine if wetting is required consists of drawing a circle the size of a quarter on a brick and placing 20 drops of water in the circle; if water is absorbed within 1-1/2 minutes, the brick requires wetting.

G.Wetting of Brick: Wet brick before laying if initial rate of absorption exceeds 30 g/30 sq. in. (30 g/194 sq. cm) per minute when tested per ASTM C 67. Allow units to absorb water so they are damp but not wet at time of laying.

3.3TOLERANCES

A.Dimensions and Locations of Elements:

1.For dimensions in cross section or elevation do not vary by more than plus 1/2 inch (12 mm) or minus 1/4 inch (6 mm).

2.For location of elements in plan do not vary from that indicated by more than plus or minus 1/2 inch (12 mm).

3.For location of elements in elevation do not vary from that indicated by more than plus or minus 1/4 inch (6 mm) in a story height or 1/2 inch (12 mm) total.

B.Lines and Levels:

1.For bed joints and top surfaces of bearing walls do not vary from level by more than 1/4 inch in 10 feet (6 mm in 3 m), or 1/2 inch (12 mm) maximum.

2.For conspicuous horizontal lines, such as lintels, sills, parapets, and reveals, do not vary from level by more than 1/8 inch in 10 feet (3 mm in 3 m), 1/4 inch in 20 feet (6 mm in 6 m), or 1/2 inch (12 mm) maximum.

3.For vertical lines and surfaces do not vary from plumb by more than 1/4 inch in 10 feet (6 mm in 3 m), 3/8 inch in 20 feet (9 mm in 6 m), or 1/2 inch (12 mm) maximum.

4.For conspicuous vertical lines, such as external corners, door jambs, reveals, and expansion and control joints, do not vary from plumb by more than 1/8 inch in 10 feet (3 mm in 3 m), 1/4 inch in 20 feet (6 mm in 6 m), or 1/2 inch (12 mm) maximum.

5.For lines and surfaces do not vary from straight by more than 1/4 inch in 10 feet (6 mm in 3 m), 3/8 inch in 20 feet (9 mm in 6 m), or 1/2 inch (12 mm) maximum.

6.For vertical alignment of exposed head joints, do not vary from plumb by more than 1/4 inch in 10 feet (6 mm in 3 m), or 1/2 inch (12 mm) maximum.

If Type FBS Rough brick or Type FBA brick is used, revise tolerance in subparagraph below to allow for variation in brick size.

7.For faces of adjacent exposed masonry units, do not vary from flush alignment by more than 1/16 inch (1.5 mm) except due to warpage of masonry units within tolerances specified for warpage of units.

C.Joints:

If Type FBS Rough brick or Type FBA brick is used, revise tolerances in five subparagraphs below to allow for variation in brick size. Consider restricting tolerances if Type FBX brick is used.

1.For bed joints, do not vary from thickness indicated by more than plus or minus 1/8 inch (3 mm), with a maximum thickness limited to 1/2 inch (12 mm).

2.For exposed bed joints, do not vary from bed-joint thickness of adjacent courses by more than 1/8 inch (3 mm).

3.For head and collar joints, do not vary from thickness indicated by more than plus 3/8 inch (9 mm) or minus 1/4 inch (6 mm).

4.For exposed head joints, do not vary from thickness indicated by more than plus or minus 1/8 inch (3 mm).[$ds~Do not vary from adjacent bed-joint and head-joint thicknesses by more than 1/8 inch (3 mm).]

5.For exposed bed joints and head joints of stacked bond, do not vary from a straight line by more than 1/16 inch (1.5 mm) from one masonry unit to the next.

3.4LAYING MASONRY WALLS

A.Lay out walls in advance for accurate spacing of surface bond patterns with uniform joint thicknesses and for accurate location of openings, movement-type joints, returns, and offsets. Avoid using less-than-half-size units, particularly at corners, jambs, and, where possible, at other locations.

Pattern is usually running bond. If other bond patterns are required, specify in first paragraph below or indicate on Drawings.

B.Bond Pattern for Exposed Masonry: Unless otherwise indicated, lay exposed masonry in [running bond] [stack bond] [one-third running bond] [Flemish bond] [English bond] [bond pattern indicated on Drawings]; do not use units with less than nominal 4-inch (100-mm) horizontal face dimensions at corners or jambs.

C.Lay concealed masonry with all units in a wythe in running bond or bonded by lapping not less than [2 inches (50 mm)] [4-inches (100-mm)]. Bond and interlock each course of each wythe at corners. Do not use units with less than nominal 4-inch (100-mm) horizontal face dimensions at corners or jambs.

D.Stopping and Resuming Work: Stop work by racking back units in each course from those in course below; do not tooth. When resuming work, clean masonry surfaces that are to receive mortar, remove loose masonry units and mortar, and wet brick if required before laying fresh masonry.

E.Built-in Work: As construction progresses, build in items specified in this and other Sections. Fill in solidly with masonry around built-in items.

Revise first paragraph below if flexible perimeter joint or thermal break is required.

F.Fill space between steel frames and masonry solidly with mortar unless otherwise indicated.

G.Where built-in items are to be embedded in cores of hollow masonry units, place a layer of metal lath, wire mesh, or plastic mesh in the joint below and rod mortar or grout into core.

H.Fill cores in hollow CMUs with grout 24 inches (600 mm) under bearing plates, beams, lintels, posts, and similar items unless otherwise indicated.

I.Build non-load-bearing interior partitions full height of story to underside of solid floor or roof structure above unless otherwise indicated.

Retain one or more of first three subparagraphs below or revise to suit Project. Coordinate with firestopping requirements. Retain first subparagraph if live-load deflection of structure above will produce stress in masonry. Indicate on Drawings or insert descriptive requirements in this Section for building walls around steel joists and similar construction if required. Indicate joint-filler thickness on Drawings as well as details of connection required if structure acts as lateral support for partitions.

1.Install compressible filler in joint between top of partition and underside of structure above.

Spacing in first subparagraph below is an example only.

2.Fasten partition top anchors to structure above and build into top of partition. Grout cells of CMUs solidly around plastic tubes of anchors and push tubes down into grout to provide 1/2-inch (13-mm) clearance between end of anchor rod and end of tube. Space anchors [48 inches (1200 mm)] <Insert spacing> o.c. unless otherwise indicated.

3.Wedge non-load-bearing partitions against structure above with small pieces of tile, slate, or metal. Fill joint with mortar after dead-load deflection of structure above approaches final position.

4.At fire-rated partitions, treat joint between top of partition and underside of structure above to comply with Section 078446 "Fire-Resistive Joint Systems."

3.5MORTAR BEDDING AND JOINTING

A.Lay hollow [brick] [and] [CMUs] as follows:

1.With face shells fully bedded in mortar and with head joints of depth equal to bed joints.

2.With webs fully bedded in mortar in all courses of piers, columns, and pilasters.

3.With webs fully bedded in mortar in grouted masonry, including starting course on footings.

4.With entire units, including areas under cells, fully bedded in mortar at starting course on footings where cells are not grouted.

B.Lay solid masonry units with completely filled bed and head joints; butter ends with sufficient mortar to fill head joints and shove into place. Do not deeply furrow bed joints or slush head joints.

C.Lay structural-clay tile as follows:

1.Lay vertical-cell units with full head joints unless otherwise indicated. Provide bed joints with full mortar coverage on face shells and webs.

2.Lay horizontal-cell units with full bed joints unless otherwise indicated. Keep drainage channels, if any, free of mortar. Form head joints with sufficient mortar so excess will be squeezed out as units are placed in position. Butter both sides of units to be placed, or butter one side of unit already in place and one side of unit to be placed.

3.Maintain joint thicknesses indicated except for minor variations required to maintain bond alignment. If not indicated, lay walls with 1/4- to 3/8-inch- (6- to 10-mm-) thick joints.

4.Where epoxy-mortar pointed joints are indicated, rake out setting mortar to a uniform depth of 1/4 inch (6 mm) and point with epoxy mortar to comply with epoxy-mortar manufacturer's written instructions.

D.Set firebox brick in full bed of refractory mortar with full head joints. Form joints by buttering both surfaces of adjoining brick and sliding it into place. Make joints just wide enough to accommodate variations in size of brick, approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm). Tool joints smooth on surfaces exposed to fire or smoke.

E.Install clay flue liners to comply with ASTM C 1283. Install flue liners ahead of surrounding masonry. Set clay flue liners in full bed of refractory mortar 1/16 to 1/8 inch (1.6 to 3 mm) thick. Strike joints flush on inside of flue to provide smooth surface. Maintain expansion space between flue liner and surrounding masonry except where surrounding masonry is required to provide lateral support for flue liners.

F.Set [stone] [cast-stone] trim units in full bed of mortar with full vertical joints. Fill dowel, anchor, and similar holes.

1.Clean soiled surfaces with fiber brush and soap powder and rinse thoroughly with clear water.

2.Allow cleaned surfaces to dry before setting.

Retain last subparagraph above for relatively impervious stones such as granite; retain subparagraph below for absorptive stones, such as limestone and sandstone, and for cast stone.

3.Wet joint surfaces thoroughly before applying mortar.

If another joint profile is used, revise first paragraph below or show on Drawings.

G.Tool exposed joints slightly concave when thumbprint hard, using a jointer larger than joint thickness unless otherwise indicated.

1.For glazed masonry units, use a nonmetallic jointer 3/4 inch (19 mm) or more in width.

H.Cut joints flush for masonry walls to receive plaster or other direct-applied finishes (other than paint) unless otherwise indicated.

3.6COMPOSITE MASONRY

Delete first paragraph below and retain second paragraph if bonding system is indicated on Drawings.

A.Bond wythes of composite masonry together using one of the following methods:

Retain one or more bonding methods in three subparagraphs below; revise methods retained to suit Project and office practice.

Revise spacings in first subparagraph below to suit coursing, to comply with requirements of authorities having jurisdiction, or to comply with structural requirements imposed by wind or seismic forces. Spacings are for wire ties 0.187 inch (4.76 mm) in diameter, wire ties 0.148 inch (3.77 mm) in diameter, and adjustable two-piece ties, respectively.

1.Individual Metal Ties: Provide ties as shown installed in horizontal joints, but not less than one metal tie for [4.5 sq. ft. (0.42 sq. m)] [2.67 sq. ft. (0.25 sq. m)] [1.77 sq. ft. (0.16 sq. m)] of wall area spaced not to exceed [36 inches (914 mm)] [24 inches (610 mm)] [16 inches (406 mm)] o.c. horizontally and 16 inches (406 mm) o.c. vertically. Stagger ties in alternate courses. Provide additional ties within 12 inches (305 mm) of openings and space not more than 36 inches (914 mm) apart around perimeter of openings. At intersecting and abutting walls, provide ties at no more than 24 inches (610 mm) o.c. vertically.

a.Where bed joints of wythes do not align, use adjustable (two-piece) type ties.

2.Masonry Joint Reinforcement: Installed in horizontal mortar joints.

a.Where bed joints of both wythes align, use [ladder-type reinforcement extending across both wythes] [tab-type reinforcement].

b.Where bed joints of wythes do not align, use adjustable (two-piece) type reinforcement[ with continuous horizontal wire in facing wythe attached to ties].

First option in subparagraph below provides headers equal to 4 percent of wall area for standard modular-size brick; second option provides 4 percent coverage for thicker brick.

3.Header Bonding: Provide masonry unit headers extending not less than 3 inches (76 mm) into each wythe. Space headers not over [8 inches (203 mm)] [12 inches (305 mm)] clear horizontally and 16 inches (406 mm) clear vertically.

B.Bond wythes of composite masonry together using bonding system indicated on Drawings.

C.Collar Joints: Solidly fill collar joints by parging face of first wythe that is laid and shoving units of other wythe into place.

Solid collar joints are required if sum of all wythes is needed to comply with height-to-thickness ratio requirements.

D.Collar Joints in Clay Tile Masonry: After each course is laid, fill the vertical, longitudinal joint between wythes solidly with mortar at [exterior walls, except cavity walls] [, and] [interior walls and partitions].

E.Corners: Provide interlocking masonry unit bond in each wythe and course at corners unless otherwise indicated.

1.Provide continuity with masonry joint reinforcement at corners by using prefabricated L-shaped units as well as masonry bonding.

F.Intersecting and Abutting Walls: Unless vertical expansion or control joints are shown at juncture, bond walls together as follows:

Retain one of three subparagraphs below and revise to suit Project. If more than one type of bonding is required, revise subparagraphs and show locations of each on Drawings.

1.Provide individual metal ties not more than [
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