Abstract Microcontroller is a basic building block for implementing embedded systems. An embedded system is a special-purpose computer based block included in a given system.


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K

ing Saud University


College of Engineering

Department of electrical Engineering


Design of a Microcontroller Circuit With USB for M2M Application using GSM Network


Master Thesis By:

Mohammed A. Al-Dalbehi

Supervised by

Professor: Mohammed Abu El-Ela

Dr. Bandar Al-Mashary

March 23, 2008
Arabic abstract

ملخص الرسالة
يعتبر المتحكم الدقيق من الدوائر الأساسية لبناء الأنظمة المتضمنة وهى أنظمة تعتمد على الحاسب كوحدة بنائية ويتم ضمها داخل منظومة ما. وعلى عكس وظيفة الحاسوب الآلي الذي يقوم بوظائف عامة فإن الأنظمة المتضمنة يكون لها وظائف سابقة التحديد. وعادة يتم تصميم البنية الداخلية لمتحكم دقيق بحيث تلبى احتياجات سابقة التحديد من قبل المستخدم بحيث تفي بأغراض المنظومة الكلية التي تتضمنها. ويمكن للمصمم اختيار المتحكم الدقيق من مئات الدوائر القياسية المتاحة بالأسواق. أو يمكنه تصميم وحدة خاصة باستخدام تقنيات" نظام على رقيقة سليكون “ المتاحة حاليا من العديد من الشركات.
ومن التقنيات الواعدة المستخدمة في بناء ألأنظمة تامة الأتمتة تقنية اتصال آله بآله أو اتصال آله بإنسان باستخدام شبكة الجوال. ويقوم المتحكم الدقيق بدور العقل المدبر لهذه ألأنظمة حيث يمكن من خلال هذه التقنية نقل البيانات بين آله وأخرى أو أله وإنسان أو العكس. ونظرا لتوفر شبكات الجوال وكفاءتها فى نقل البيانات الرقمية بدون تكلفة عملية فقد وفرت العديد من شركات الجوال مثل اريكسون و نوكيا وعالم –زد في الأسواق عدة وحدات لتطوير نماذج أولية لبعض التطبيقات في هذا المجال. وعادة ما يتم استخدام دائرة المواجهة المتوالية القياسية من نوع RS232 للاتصال بين جهاز الجوال الذي يعمل كمرسل و مستقبل للبيانات وبين دائرة التطبيقات التي تحتوى على المتحكم الدقيق والمتصل بالآلة.

ونظرا لشيوع استخدام دائرة مواجهة متوالية جامعة (USB ) فى معظم الأجهزة ألآن لتفوقها على دائرة المواجهة المتوالية القياسية من نوع RS232 فإن تزويد دائرة المتحكم الدقيق بدائرة دائرة المواجهة المتوالية الجامعة من نوع USB سوف يحسن من أداء أنظمة ألتحكم عموما وأنظمة التحكم على شبكة الجوال على وجه الخصوص.
الهدف الأساسي من هذا البحث هو اقتراح وتصميم دائرة متحكم دقيق تحتوى على دائرة مواجهة جامعة ( USB ) ويلبى التصميم احتياجات التطوير الواجب توافرها في وحدات التصميم للنماذج الأولية لتطبيقات أنظمة اتصال آله بآله أو اتصال آله بإنسان أو العكس وذلك باستخدام شبكة الجوال المحلية و العالمية . كما سيساعد البحث أيضا في دراسة وتعلم وممارسة التصميم باستخدام تقنيات و أدوات التصميم الحديثة للأنظمة الإلكترونية الرقمية وذلك من خلال محاكاة و نمذجة وتنفيذ الدائرة المقترحة للمتحكم الدقيق .

Abstract

Microcontroller is a basic building block for implementing embedded systems. An embedded system is a special-purpose computer based block included in a given system . It has specific requirements and performs pre-defined tasks, unlike a general-purpose personal computer.. The designer of an embedded system may choose from off-shelf standard Microcontrollers chips or design his own structure using SoC (System On Chip) available technologies.
M2M (short for machine-to-machine, man-to-machine or mobile-to-machine) is a new and growing technology available in the market for designing and implementing fully automated systems.
Microcontroller acts like the brain of M2M which is estimated to get an exponential growth in the coming years. M2M enables the flow of data between machines and machines, and ultimately machines and people. Regardless of the type of machine or data, information usually flows from a machine over a network such as GSM network.
Many companies like Ericsson, Nokia and Z- world provide the market by a lot of M2M developer kits which mainly depend on Microcontrollers. These microcontrollers use the RS 232C standard serial interface to communicate with the other circuits within the M2M system. Using the USB interface instead of the RS232 will improve the system performance because of its advantages and flexibility. It is to be noted here, that most of Laptops are not equipped with RS232 interface.
The main objective of the thesis is to propose and design a Microcontroller structure that includes USB interface. On the other hand the design has to satisfy the requirements of developers employing the microcontroller in building M2M systems. The research also helps in studying and practicing new and advanced techniques in digital circuit simulation through using modern simulation packages to simulate the proposed Microcontroller.


Acknowledgments

Table of Contents
Arabic abstract II

abstract III

Aknologment IV

Table of Contents V

List of Figures IX

List of Tables XI

Abbreviation XII

INTRODUCTION 1

M2M Overview 1

M2M and Microcontroller 1

Where the M2M technology can be used? 1

M2M networks 2

M2M kits manufactures 2
CHAPTER 1 Microcontroller architecture 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Basic components in Microcontroller 3

1.2.1 Memory unit 4

1.2.2 Central Processing Unit 5

1.2.3 Bus 6

1.2.4 Input-output unit 7

1.2.5 Timer unit 8

1.2.6 Analog to Digital Converter 9

1.2.7 Serial communication 9

1.2.7.1 Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) 10

1.2.7.2 RS-232 11

1.2.7.3 Universal Serial Bus (USB) 13
CHAPTER 2 Universal Serial Bus (USB) Fundamentals 14

2.1 Introduction 14

2.2 USB System Description 14

2.2.1 USB interconnect 14

2.2.2 USB Host 15

2.2.3 USB Devices 15

2.2.3.1 Hubs 16

2.2.3.2 Functions 16

2.3 Physical Interface 17

2.3.1 Signaling 17

2.3.2 Power 18

2.3.3 USB Cable 19

2.4 Protocol 20

2.4.1 Bit Ordering 20

2.4.2 Packet Field Formats 20

2.4.2.1 SYNC Field 20

2.4.2.2 Packet Identifier Field 20

2.4.2.3 Address Fields 21

2.4.2.3.1 Address Field 21

2.4.2.3.2 Endpoint Field 22

2.4.2.4 Frame Number Field 23

2.4.2.5 Data Field 23

2.4.3 Packet Formats 23

2.4.3.1 Token Packets 23

2.4.3.2 Start-of-Frame Packets 24

2.4.3.3 Data Packets 25

2.4.3.4 Handshake Packets 25

2.4.4 Data Flow Types 27

2.4.5 Transfer Types 27

2.4.5.1 Control Transfers 28

2.4.5.2 Isochronous Transfers 28

2.4.5.3 Interrupt Transfers 29

2.4.5.4 Bulk Transfers 29
CHAPTER 3 Implementation of Microcontroller core in FPGA 30

3.1 Introduction 30

3.2 Synthesizable VHDL Model of 8051 (Dalton project) 31

3.2.1 Block Diagram. 31

3.2.2 Verification Procedure of the 8051 model 32

3.3 PicoBlaze core for Microcontroller 34

3.3.1 Introduction 34

3.3.2 PicoBlaze Microcontroller Features 36

3.3.3 PicoBlaze Microcontroller Functional Blocks 37

3.3.3.1 General-Purpose Registers 37

3.3.3.2 (1,024)-Instruction Program Store 37

3.3.3.3 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) 37

3.3.3.4 Flags 38

3.3.3.5 (64)-Byte Scratchpad RAM 38

3.3.3.6 Input/Output 38

3.3.3.7 Program Counter (PC) 39

3.3.3.8 Program Flow Control 39

3.3.3.9 CALL/RETURN Stack 39

3.3.3.10 Interrupts 40

3.3.3.11 Reset 40

3.3.4 Verification of PicoBlaze code 40
CHAPTER 4 Microcontroller with USB interface 43

4.1 Introduction 43

4.2 Implementation of USB 43

4.2.1 USB Cores for FPGA 43

4.2.1.1 Physical Layer 44

4.2.1.2 Protocol layer 44

4.2.2 Serial Interfacing to Microcontroller 45

4.2.3 Parallel Interfacing to Microcontroller controller 46

4.3 Hardware verification of Microcontroller Core with USB interface 47

4.4 Experimental Work 48

4.4.1 Hardware verification of PicoBlaze testing code 48

4.4.2 Integrating the FPGA board (NEXYSII) with (FT245R) USB Chip 49

4.4.3 Assembly and VHDL codes for Microcontroller with USB 50

4.4.3.1 PicoBlaze assembly program for Microcontroller with USB 50

4.4.3.2 VHDL code for testing Microcontroller with USB interface 51

4.4.4 Testing the overall circuit 52
CHAPTER 5 GSM module with USB 55

5.1 Introduction 55

5.2 Hardware of the GSM Module with USB 55

5.3 VHDL code of the GSM Module with USB 56

5.3.1 UART Implementation Using FPGA 56

5.3.1.1 Start bit 57

5.3.1.2 Data bits 57

5.3.1.3 Parity bit 57

5.3.1.4 Stop bits 57

5.4 Assembly code of the GSM Module with USB 58

5.5 Testing the overall circuit 58

Conclusion 61

Future work 62

Referances 63

Appendix A: Sony Ericsson GM47/GM48 64

Appendix B: VHDL Top level code for Verification of PicoBlaze code 105

Appendix C: FT245R (Parallel to USB chip data sheet) 109

Appendix D: Digilent NEXYS II Board schematic 135

Appendix E: PicoBlaze assembly program for Microcontroller with USB 147

Appendix F: VHDL code for testing Microcontroller with USB interface 156

Appendix G: PicoBlaze assembly program for GSM Module with USB 162

Appendix H: VHDL code for GSM Module with USB 167

Appendix I: PicoBlaze Instruction Set 175

List of Figures
Figure I : Sony Ericsson GM47/GM48 module 2

Figure 1.1: Microcontroller outline with its basic elements and internal connections 4

Figure 1.2: Microcontroller’s memory unit 5

Figure 1.3: Microcontroller Central Processing Unit block 6

Figure 1.4: Microcontroller Buses 7

Figure 1.5: Microcontroller Ports 8

Figure 1.6: Timer unit 8

Figure 1.7: A/D converter 9

Figure 1.8: Serial communication block in Microcontroller 10

Figure 1.9: UART block diagram 11

Figure 2.1: Bus Topology 15

Figure 2.2: A Typical Hub 16

Figure 2.3: USB cable 17

Figure 2.4: USB cable connector types 19

Figure 2.5: PID Format 21

Figure 2.6: ADDR Field 22

Figure 2.7: Endpoint Field 22

Figure 2.8: Data Field Format 23

Figure 2.9: Token Format 24

Figure 2.10: SOF Packet 24

Figure 2.11: Data Packet Format 25

Figure 2.12 : Handshake Packet 26

Figure 3.1: Block Diagram of 8051 model 32

Figure 3.2: Simulation result of testing 8051 model 34

Figure 3.3: Block Diagram of PicoBlaze 36

Figure 3.4: Simulation result of PicoBlaze 42

Figure 4.1 :Maxim implementation for the USB to Microcontroller through UART 45

Figure 4.2 :block diagram of the FT245R chip 46

Figure 4.3 :NEXYSII board 47

Figure 4.4: proposed block diagram for Microcontroller with USB 48

Figure 4.5: Hardware verification for PicoBlaze code 49

Figure 4.6: Microcontroller with USB on board 50

Figure 4.7: Block diagram of VHDL code 51

Figure 4.8: Hyper Terminal showing the program Menu 52

Figure 4.9: Test result in Hyper Terminal 53

Figure 4.10: Switches and LEDs Values after using the program 53

Figure 5.1: Final System blocks 56

Figure 5.2: On Board Final circuit 59

Figure 5.3: Final System working 60

List of Tables
Table 2.1: RS232 cable length according to Texas Instruments 12

Table 3.1 Comparison between hard wired and FPGA implementation of Microcontroller 30

Table 3.2 8051 model blocks description 31

Abbreviations



8051

The Intel 8051 is a single chip microcontroller

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

bit stuffing

(Also positive justification) is the insertion of non information bits into data.

CRC

cyclic redundancy check

DPLL

Digital phase-locked loop,

FPGA

Field-programmable gate array

GPRS

General Packet Radio Service

GSM

Global System for Mobile communications

IC

Integrated Circuit

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network

LED

light-emitting diode

LSb

Least-Significant Bit

Mbps

megabit per second

Microcontroller

(also MCU or µC) is a computer-on-a-chip.

MSb

Most-Significant Bit

NAK

negative-acknowledge

NRZI

non-return-to-zero

PC

personal computer

PID

Packet Identifier Field

Protocol

set of rules governing communication

RS 232

Recommended Standard 232

SOF

Start-of-Frame

SOP

Start-of-Packet

system C

hardware description language

Verilog

hardware description language

VHDL

Very-High-Speed Integrated Circuits hardware description language

WLAN

Wireless LAN is a wireless local area network

WWAN

Wireless Wide Area Network


INTRODUCTION

The target of this thesis is to develop M2M (machine-to-machine, man-to-machine or mobile-to-machine) module with USB (Universal Serial Bus) interface .This can be achieved by designing a Microcontroller circuit which has USB interface.

M2M Overview

The M2M is a new and growing technology available in the market for designing and implementing fully automated systems. Many companies like Ericsson, Nokia and Z- world provide the market by several M2M developer kits which mainly depend on employing Microcontrollers that may be interfaced to the built in GSM modules. In This work a survey study for the available kits in the market showed that most of them use the standard RS 232C serial interface to communicate with the other circuits within the M2M system. Using the USB interface instead of the RS232 will improve the system performance because of its advantages and flexibility. It is to be noted here, that most of Laptops are not equipped with RS232 interface.

M2M and Microcontroller

Microcontroller acts like the brain of M2M which is estimated to get an exponential growth in the coming years. M2M enables the flow of data between machines and machines, and ultimately machines and people. Regardless of the type of machine or data, information usually flows from a machine over a network, and then through a gateway to a system where it can be processed and analyzed. On other words, M2M allows a machine or device to transmit or receive its data remotely over a network such as GSM network.

Where the M2M technology can be used?

There are many fields that M2M can be used such as:

  • Manufacturing : A lot of Manufacturer may use M2M to enable its customer to remotely collect data as an alternative to manual

  • Facility Managements :Building operators can use M2M to monitor their equipments operation such as energy machines

  • Medical Application : M2M can be used to collect data from remote diagnostic equipments in patients site ( i.e. Blood pressure ,weight)

  • Security : sensors can be used to generate alarms when needed

And many applications can be found for this active technology

M2M networks

M2M can be used in many networks like WLAN,WWAN and others networks but the cellular networks ( GSM ,GPRS ) is preferred because of Wide area coverage and High reliability

M2M development kits manufactures

Today many companies like Ericsson, Nokia and Z world provide M2M kits which can support new networks available

The developed Microcontroller circuit will be used with the Sony Ericsson GM47/GM48 module [1] available in the Electrical Engineering department Ericsson lab (see appendix A for its data sheet)



Figure I: Sony Ericsson GM47/GM48 module

CHAPTER 1

Microcontroller Architecture
The main objective of this thesis is to develop M2M development kit with USB interface. This may be achieved by designing a Microcontroller Circuit having USB compatible interface.

    1. Introduction

Circumstances that we find ourselves today in the field of microcontrollers had their beginnings in the development of technology of integrated circuits. This development has made it possible to store hundreds of thousands of transistors into one chip. That was a prerequisite for production of Microprocessors IC chips, and the first computers were made by adding external peripherals such as memory, input-output lines, timers and others. Further increasing in the scale of integration makes it possible to design and impalement integrated circuits containing both processor and peripherals. That is how the first chip containing a Microcomputer, or what would later be known as a Microcontroller came about.

Microcontroller differs from a microprocessor in many ways. First and the most important is its functionality. In order for a microprocessor to be used, other components such as memory, or components for receiving and sending data must be added on circuit board. In short, that means that microprocessor is the very heart of the computer. On the other hand, Microcontroller is designed to be all of that in one. No other external components or fewer components are needed for its application because all necessary peripherals are already built in. Thus, we save both time and space needed to construct devices

1.2 Basic components in Microcontroller [2]

Basic components of Microcontroller can be seen in figure 1.1



Figure 1.1: Microcontroller outline with its basic elements and internal connections

1.2.1 Memory unit

Memory is part of the Microcontroller whose function is to store data. 
The easiest way to explain it is to describe it as one big closet with lots of drawers. If we suppose that we marked the drawers in such a way that they can not be confused, any of their contents will then be easily accessible. It is enough to know the designation of the drawer and so its contents will be known to us for sure figure 1.2 showing simple block to describe memory.



Figure 1.2: Microcontroller memory unit

Memory components are exactly like that. For a certain input we get the contents of a certain addressed memory location and that's all. This means that we need to select the desired memory location on one hand, and on the other hand we need to wait for the contents of that location. An additional control lines designate as R/W (read/write). Control line is used in the following way: if r/w=1, reading is done, and if opposite is true then writing is done on the memory location. Memory is the first element, and we need a few operation of our Microcontroller.

1.2.2 Central Processing Unit

Let us add 3 more memory locations to a specific block that will have a built- in capability to multiply, divide, subtract, and move its contents from one memory location onto another. The part we just added in is called "central processing unit" (CPU). Its memory locations are called registers figure 1.3 showing CPU block.



Figure 1.3: Microcontroller Central Processing Unit block

Registers are therefore memory locations whose role is to help with performing various mathematical operations or any other operations with data wherever data can be found. Look at the current situation. We have two independent entities (memory and CPU) which are interconnected, and thus any exchange of data is hindered, as well as its functionality. If, for example, we wish to add the contents of two memory locations and return the result again back to memory, we would need a connection between memory and CPU. Simply stated, we must have some "way" through data goes from one block to another.

1.2.3 Bus

The way to connect blocks together is called "bus". Physically, it represents a group of 8, 16, or more wires. There are two types of buses: address and data bus. The first one consists of as many lines as the amount of memory we wish to address and the other one is as wide as data, in our case 8 bits or the connection line. First one serves to transmit address from CPU memory, and the second to connect all blocks inside the Microcontroller see Figure 1.4.

As far as functionality, the situation has improved, but a new problem has also appeared: we have a unit that's capable of working by itself, but which does not have any contact with the outside world, or with us! In order to remove this deficiency, let's add a block which contains several memory locations whose one end is connected to the data bus, and the other has connection with the output lines on the Microcontroller which can be seen as pins on the electronic component.



Figure 1.4: Microcontroller Buses

1.2.4 Input-output unit

Ports are way to let Microcontroller connected with others. There are several types of ports: input, output or bidirectional ports. When working with ports, first of all it is necessary to choose which port we need to work with, and then to send data to, or take it from the port.



Figure 1.5: Microcontroller Ports

When working with it the port acts like a memory location. Something is simply being written into or read from it, and it could be noticed on the pins of the microcontroller.

1.2.5 Timer unit

Since we have the serial communication explained, we can receive, send and process data.



Figure 1.6: Timer unit

However, in order to utilize it in industry we need a few additionally blocks. One of those is the timer block which is significant to us because it can give us information about time, duration, protocol etc. The basic unit of the timer is a free-run counter which is in fact a register whose numeric value increments by one in even intervals, so that by taking its value during periods T1 and T2 and on the basis of their difference we can determine how much time has elapsed.

1.2.6 Analog to Digital Converter

As the peripheral signals usually are substantially different from the ones that Microcontroller can understand (zero and one), they have to be converted into a pattern which can be comprehended by a microcontroller. This task is performed by a block for analog to digital conversion or by an ADC. This block is responsible for converting an information about some analog value to a binary number and for follow it through to a CPU block so that CPU block can further process it.



Figure 1.7: A/D converter

1.2.7 Serial communication

Beside stated above we've added to the already existing unit the possibility of communication with an outside world.

In telecommunications and computer science, serial communications is the process of sending data one bit at one time, sequentially, over a communications channel or computer bus. This is in contrast to parallel communications, where all the bits of each symbol are sent together. Serial communications is used for all long-haul communications and most computer networks, where the costs of cable and synchronization difficulties make parallel communications impractical. Serial computer buses are becoming more common as improved technology enables them to transfer data at higher speeds.



Figure 1.8: Serial communication block in Microcontroller

1.2.7.1 Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART)

A Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) is used to implement serial communication [3]. It is a standard piece of hardware. The CPU communicates with the UART by reading or writing one of eight bytes called ports. A computer system normally has more than one UART, so the port addresses depend on the particular UART being accessed. Each UART is associated with a different base address, and a particular port is specified by adding a specific index to that base address. The index for a particular port is independent of the UART, so we can characterize the ports by indices 0 through 7. Some of the UART ports can only be read, others can only be written, and both accesses are possible on some. Even when both accesses are allowed, however, they may be unrelated. For example, the UART has a data-in buffer register and a data-out buffer register. A simplified block diagram for the UART circuit is shown in Figure 1.9



Figure 1.9: UART block diagram

1.2.7.2 RS-232

In telecommunications, RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is a standard for serial binary data signals connecting between a DTE (Data terminal equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment). It is commonly used in computer serial ports.

In RS-232, data is sent as a time-series of bits. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. In addition to the data circuits, the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is, signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits, the interface can operate in a full duplex manner, supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream, or character encoding.

The RS-232 standard defines the voltage levels that correspond to logical one and logical zero levels. Valid signals are plus or minus 3 to 15 volts. The range near zero volts is not a valid RS-232 level; logic one is defined as a negative voltage, the signal condition is called marking, and has the functional significance of OFF. Logic zero is positive, the signal condition is spacing, and has the function ON. The standard specifies a maximum open-circuit voltage of 25 volts;

Because the voltage levels are higher than logic levels typically used by integrated circuits, special intervening driver circuits are required to translate logic levels. These also protect the device's internal circuitry from short circuits or transients that may appear on the RS-232 interface, and provide sufficient current to comply with the slew rate (how fast the signal changes between levels) requirements for data transmission.

The cable length mentioned in the standard allows maximum communication speed to occur. If speed is reduced by a factor 2 or 4, the maximum length increases dramatically. Texas Instruments has done some practical experiments years ago at different baud rates to test the maximum allowed cable lengths. Keep in mind, that the RS232 standard was originally developed for 20 kbps. By halving the maximum communication speed, the allowed cable length increases a factor ten!


RS232 cable length according to Texas Instruments

Baud rate

Maximum cable length (ft)

19200

50

9600

500

4800

1000

2400

3000



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Abstract Microcontroller is a basic building block for implementing embedded systems. An embedded system is a special-purpose computer based block included in a given system. iconAbstract: Our project is based on “gsm technology” used for long...




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