2. Direction of India’s Foreign Policy 08 12


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INDEX

UPDATED UPTO 30 NOV 2000

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1. Suggested Approach to CA 05 07

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

2. Direction of India’s Foreign Policy 08 12

  1. India and its Neighbours

  1. Indo-Pak Relations 13 29

  2. Afghanistan 30 33

  3. China 34 41

  4. Tibet 42 43

  5. Taiwan 44 48

  6. Myanmar 49 51

  7. Bangladesh 52 53

  8. Sri Lanka 54 58

4. India and Other Nations

  1. Indo-Russia Relations 59 64

  2. Indo-Central Asian Republic Relations 65 68

  3. West Asia Peace Process 69 77

  4. Indo-US Relations 78 92

  5. Indo-EU Relations 93 95

  6. Indo-Israel Relations 96 99

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5. International Organisations and Treaties

  1. UNO 100 113

  2. NATO 114 118

  3. CHOGM 119 122

  4. G-15 123 125

  5. G-8 126 127

  6. ASEAN 128 129

  7. ARF 130 131

  8. NAM 132 138

(j) G-77 139 141

  1. Disarmament Treaties

(i) START 142 144

  1. Ratification of CTBT by Russia 144 144

  2. ABM Treaty 145 147

  1. NPT Review Conference 148 154



  1. Misc Topics

  1. Terrorism 155 164

  2. Human Rights 165 171

  3. Yugoslavia 172 172

  4. Korea 173 173

  5. Oil Prices 174 174

  6. Russia – Chechnya Problem 175 180

  7. US-Pak Relations 181 182

  8. Sierra Leone, Peacekeeping Impondorables 183 183

(j) US Presidential Elections 184 184

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NATIONAL AFFAIRS

  1. National Security Threat Preceptions

  1. Internal 185 188

  2. External 189 192

  1. National Security Council 193 196

  2. India’s Draft Nuclear Policy 197 201

  3. Kargil Update 202 208

  4. Kashmir 209 215

  5. Kashmir Autonomy Issue 216 220

  6. North Eastern States 221 225

  7. Smaller States 226 230

  8. Political

  1. Coalition Governments 231 234

  2. Electoral Reforms 235 239

  3. Article 356 Controversy 240 243

  4. Constitution Review 244 248

  1. Economy

  1. Indian Economic Reforms Programme 249 251

  2. RBI’s Monetary and Credit Policy 252 253

  3. Budget 2000 254 258

  4. Budget Terminology 259 261

  5. Globalisation 262 265

  6. WTO 266 269

  7. Patent Amendent Act 1999 270 275

  8. Insurance Regulatory and Development Act 275 276

(j) FEMA 276 276

(k) 11th Financial Commission 276 278

  1. Environment

  1. Dams 279 282

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  1. Narmada Dam 282 285

  2. Tehri Dam 285 286

  3. Disaster Management 286 290

  4. Earth Quake 290 293

  5. Air Pollution 293 296

  6. Global Warming 296 298

  7. Drought 298 302

  1. Science and Tech

  1. Indian Policy on Science and Tech 303 305

  2. Indian Space Programme 306 314

  3. Missile Development Programme 314 320

  4. Info Tech 321 324

  5. IT Bill 324 327

  6. Cyber Terrorism 327 330

  7. AIDS 330 334

  8. Human Genome Project 335 340

(h) Sankhya Vahini 340 342

19. Population Problem 342 349

SPORTS

20. Sydney Olympics 350 351

21. Cricket Match Fixing Controversy 352 353

22. Imp National & International Sports Events 353 354

HONOURS AND AWARDS

23. Imp National & Internation Events 355 357

SUGGESTED APPROACH TO TACKLE CURRENT AFFAIRS

1. The current affairs papers have been following a definite trend in the last six years. The pattern of question papers is similar with very few variations. The analysis of the question papers is given in succeeding paras.

2. Layout. The question papers are arranged in four sections. The format is explained below: -

(a) Section 1. Two essay type questions with answers 250 to 300 words are set in this section. Each question carries 50 marks.

(b) Section 2. This section has 10 question of 25 to 30 marks each. These questions require short answers of 150 to 200 words each.

(c) Section 3. Requires very short answers of 50 to 60 words. Six to eight questions are set each carrying 10 marks.

(d) Section 4. This section is objective type. Generally eight questions are set in this section.

3. Distribution of Marks. The questions set in the Current Affairs papers generally require answers which are factual in nature. The thinker and application type of questions are very few and that too not in classical thinker application type. Certain questions which elicit analysis of the aspect under discussion are set. Views of students are also asked.

4. Generally the topics covered are as follows :-

(a) National Affairs.

(b) International Affairs.

5. Important Aspects (National Affairs). In the National Affairs certain aspects of national life which are given prominence are :-

(a) Economics, finance and budget.

(b) Constitutional and political affairs.

(c) Defence.

(d) Internal Sit.

(e) Space and Science.

(f) Sports.

(g) Miscellaneous.

6. Important pts to remember :-

(a) The questions which are set in Current Affairs require detailed factual information in the answer.

(b) The weightage given to National and International affairs is 45 to 55 percent.

(c) Among the International Affairs only the aspects which have bearing on India are asked.

(d) Economic, financial, constitutional and political affairs are generally asked in each year with 10 to 15% of weightage.

(e) Other National Affairs to incl inter state/intra state affairs and disputes (Covered in miscellaneous) also get adequate weightage.

(f) The question on sports get 2 to 10% weightage.

Causes of Failures

7. The causes of failure in Current Affairs are :-

(a) The nature of the subject is such that many aspirants tend to take it casually.

(b) Candidates do not devote adequate time to this subject.

(c) The question paper demands detailed knowledge of the aspects under discussion, whereas, the casual approach leads to accumulation of superficial knowledge only.

(d) Absence of supplements giving latest developments.

Tackling the Paper

8. Before putting the answer on the paper, it is always good to quickly plan the sequence in which the ideas are to be presented. Effort in this regard should not be treated as waste of time. This helps in presenting the answers in a clear, concise, neat and clean form. It is important that basic rules of SD are adhered to.

9. Questions of Section I must be answered in the pattern of a military paper. Questions of Section II should also follow the same pattern. You may generally borrow the statements from the question itself for “introducing” the subject in a couple of sentences. Use must be made of meaningful group/para headings to present your answers where applicable. It may be noted that in a question asking for analysis/comments, factual details should also be given, if relevant. Tendency to show off knowledge must be curbed.

10. It is advisable to begin answering a question on a fresh page.

11. When nothing is known about the subject, speculative answering is to be avoided. This situation will not arise if you carry out thorough preparation before the exam.

Short Answer Questions

12. It should be ensured that the question in Section II and III are answered briefly in point form. Extra marks are not likely to be obtained by writing more than what is required. As a simple guide, one page (150 words) is considered adequate for questions in Section II and half a page (50 to 60 words) for questions in Section III.

Objective Type Questions

13. Questions under Section III are mathematical in nature and require hardly any time to answer. These should be scored well. Ensure that your facts and figures are updated. Avoid ‘guess work’ as this section has negative marking.

DIRECTION OF INDIA’S FOREIGN POLICY

Introduction

  1. Foreign Policy can be defined in a broad sense as the sum total of the Principles, Aims and Objectives which a country evolves in conducting its relations with other countries.

2. Over the period of years a broad consensus has developed on India’s foreign policy within the country. The Prime Minister, Mr. Vajpayee has reiterated that there will be continuity in India’s foreign policy.

3. Analysts feel that long term planning to various facets of foreign policy should replace adhoc dealings with emerging situations. Foreign policy should be clubbed with security and defence for carefully planned strategies. According to analysts, military action against other countries is an extension of that country’s foreign policy.

Background

4. India’s first Prime Minister, Mr. Jawaharlal Nehru laid down the broad parameters of India’s foreign policy. These were based on the twin concept of “Non-Alignment” and “Panch-Sheel.” This policy was followed by India during the Cold War period.

5. Analysts feel that India’s foreign policy came under pressure during times of domestic instability as follows :

(a) The first period of domestic political instability followed the death of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1964 and lasted till the early 1971. Sensing India’s weakness, Pakistan launched a war in 1965.

(b) The second period of domestic instability came about in the late seventies with the fall of the Janata Party Government. During this period the great powers tried to constrain India’s nuclear options. It is pointed out that during this period the great powers also extended their influence among the smaller neighbours of India.

(c) The third period of political instability came during the late 1980s when terrorism gripped Punjab and Kashmir. The Mandal and Mandir issues resulted in domestic political instability. These internal instabilities were compounded by the collapse of the Soviet Union. This led to increased international pressure on India on a number of issues like Kashmir, nuclear and missile programmes and Indo-Pak relations.

6. India’s non-alignment policy was designed to not only stay out of the blocs system but also to try and bring the blocs together on various issues as far as possible.

7. In the Nineties, the Narasimha Rao Government’s foreign policy was based on two parameters :-

(a) Managing the pains of transition and adjusting to the post Cold war situation.

(b) Economic diplomacy which acquired a high profile.

8. Gujral Doctrine : Named after the former Prime Minister, Mr. I.K. Gujral it was based on the following aspects :

(a) India does not ask for reciprocity with its smaller neighbours, but gives all that it can in good faith and trust.

(b) No South Asian country will allow its territory to be used against the interests of another country of the region.

(c) No South Asian country will interfere in the internal affairs of another.

(d) All South Asian countries must respect each others territorial integrity and sovereignty.

(e) All countries will settle their dispute through peaceful bilateral negotiations.

Priorities of India’s Foreign Policy

9. India’s Neighbours : India’s foreign policy priorities have changed dramatically after the conduct of nuclear tests by India and Pakistan. There is a general apprehension among India’s neighbours on the following aspects :

(a) The prospect of a nuclear arms race between India and Pakistan.

(b) The set-back to Sino-Indian relations which can increase Sino-Indian tensions on one hand and Sino-Pak defence co-operation on the other.

(c) The impact of sanctions on India and Pakistan which can have repercussions on the economies of other neighbours from Myanmar to Maldives.

(d) The apprehension that a nuclear India might become more assertive in its policies in relation to its smaller neighbours.

India is responding positively to assuage these apprehensions by engaging in regional confidence building measures and enhanced economic co-operation with neighbours.

10. India’s Security Doctrine : India should adopt a policy of minimum deterrence and no-first use without reservations, according to defence analysts. India can also accede to the CTBT and the FMCT as they do not affect India’s security interests adversely.

11. Asian Security System : India should be a major player in the balance of power system in Asia. The rationale behind India going nuclear is to restore the balance of power in Asia, as the symbol of power is nuclear capability, according to analysts. Russia, China, India and Japan are the central players in Asia.

12. Nuclear Deterrence.

(a) Deterrence has been practised since a long time and without nuclear deterrence there could have been a third world war, according to analysts.

(b) India proclaims no-first-use of nuclear weapons in order to prove to the world that under no circumstances will India use the nuclear weapons first.

(c) India’s draft nuclear doctrine states that India should posess nuclear weapons for minimum nuclear deterrence.

13.
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