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APA Requirements

Updated in February, 2017


General: Chapter 5


  • 81/2 X 11inch paper

  • Typed

  • One sided

  • White paper

  • Typeface

    • 12-pt Font

    • Times New Roman

  • Double spaced

  • Margins - 1 inch (top, bottom, left and right sides

  • Do not right justify

  • Two spaces after punctuation marks at the end of a sentence


Title Page:

  • Running Head

    • abbreviated title – not to exceed 50 characters, including punctuation & spaces

    • Flush left at the top of the title page

    • Position 1 inch from the left-hand edge of page, ½ inch from top of page

    • Title In uppercase letters

    • Example: Running head: EFFECTS OF ADE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION

  • Page numbers

    • Starts with Title page

    • 1 inch from the right-hand edge of page, ½ inch from top of page




  • Title

    • Upper and lower case

    • Centered between left and right margins

    • Position in the upper half of the page

    • If title is two or more lines, double-space

  • Name of Author

    • Omit all titles

    • Double spaced under title of paper

    • First name, middle initial, & last name

  • Name of institutional affiliation


Text:

  • Begin Text or body of paper on a new page

  • Type the title of the paper, centered at the top of the page, double space, and then type the text.

  • Indent the first line of every paragraph (five to seven spaces)




  • Clarity

    • Third person-To avoid ambiguity, use a personal pronoun rater than the third person when describing steps taken in your experiment

      • Correct - We reviewed the literature

      • Incorrect – The authors reviewed the literature

    • Editorial we. Restrict use of we to refer only to yourself and your coauthors.

      • Correct – Researchers usually classify birdsongs

      • Incorrect – We usually classify birdsongs on the basis of


Mechanics of Style – Chapter 4

  • Spacing – insert one space

    • after commas, colons, and semicolons

    • periods that separate parts of a reference citation

    • periods of the initials in personal names

  • Double or Single Quotation marks

    • Use double quotation marks to enclose quotations in text

    • Use single quotation marks within double quotation marks to set off material that in the original source was enclosed in double quotation marks

  • Abbreviations

    • Use sparingly

    • If not an abbreviation found in a Collegiate Dictionary

      • First appearance-write out word completely and followed immediately by the abbreviation in parentheses.

  • Numbers

    • Use figures to express numbers 10 and above

      • Except

        • Any number tat begins a sentence, title, or text heading

        • Common fractions

          • One fifth of the class

          • Two-thirds majority

        • Universally accepted usages

          • The Twelve Apostles

          • Five Pillars of Islam

    • Use words to express numbers below 10

      • Except numbers that

        • immediately precede a unit of measure

          • a 5-mg dose

          • with 10.54 cm of

        • represent statistical or mathematical functions

          • multiplied by 5

          • 3 times as many

          • 0.33 of

          • more than 5% of the sample

        • represent time dates ages, scores, sums of money

          • 1 hr 34 minu

          • at 12:30 a.m.

          • 2-year-old

          • scored 4 on a 7-point scale



Crediting Sources – Chapter 6


  • Plagiarism – do not claim the words and ideas of another as your own. Give credit where credit is due

  • Quotations

    • Direct quotes (Chapter 3)

      • should be reproduced word for word

      • provide the author, year and specific page citation in the text

      • direct quotes must follow the wording, spelling, and interior punctuation of the original source, even if the sources is incorrect

    • Short direct quotation (fewer than 40 words) incorporated into the text and enclosed by double quotation marks “---” At the end of the quote, cite the quoted source and page or paragraph number in parentheses

    • Long quotations (40 words or more) indent 5-7 spaces, in a double-spaced block of typewritten lines with not quotation marks. Do not single space. At the end, cite the quoted source and page or paragraph number in parentheses after the final punctuation mark.

  • Paraphrasing

    • When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, you need to provide the surname of the author and the year of publication. It is strongly encouraged to also include the page or paragraph number.

  • Citation References in Text

  • One author

    • Surname of the Author (do not include suffixes) & year of publication

      • Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler, 2017)

    • If the name of the author appears as part of the narrative, cite only the year of publication in parentheses

      • Kessler (2016) found

      • Within that paragraph, you need not include the year in subsequent references

    • If both the name of the author and the year of publication are part of the narrative, do not add parenthesis

      • In 2016, Kessler’s study

      • When both the name and year are in parentheses, include the year in subsequent citations within the paragraph

  • Two authors

    • Always cite both names every time the reference occurs in text

      • (DeWolfe & Knol, 2017)

      • DeWolfe and Knol (2017)

      • In 2017, DeWolfe and Knol

  • Three, four or five authors

    • Cite all authors and year the first time the reference occurs

      • DeWolfe, Brown and Call (2017) found

      • (DeWolfe, Brown & Call, 2017)

    • Subsequent citation, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within a new paragraph

      • DeWolfe et al. (2017)

    • DeWolfe et al. (omit year from subsequent citations after first citation within a paragraph

  • Six or more authors:

    • Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for the first and subsequent citations.

  • Personal Communications

    • Includes letters, memos, emails, personal interviews, telephone conversations

    • Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list

    • Cites as personal communications in text only

      • S.K. DeWolfe (personal communication, January 25, 2017)

      • (S.K. DeWolfe, personal communication, January 25, 2017)

  • If a works has no identified author or with an anonymous author

    • Cite the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year

      • On free care (”Study finds,” 2017)

      • The book College Bound Seniors (2017),

  • Secondary Sources

    • For example if Allport’s work is cited in Nicholson and you did not read Allport’s work. List the Nicholson reference in the reference list. In the text, us the following

      • Allport’s diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2016)




  • Reference List

  • Start the reference list on a new page

  • Type the work References in upper and lower case letters, centered, at the top of the page

  • Double-space all references

  • References are a hanging indent format, which means

    • First line of each reference is set flush left

    • Subsequent lines are indented

  • Alphabetize by the surname of the first author of the works

  • Abbreviation:

    • chap. - chapter

    • ed. – edition

    • Rev. ed. – revised edition

    • 2nd ed. – second edition

    • Ed. (Eds.) – editor (Editors)

    • Trans. – translator (s)

    • n.d. – no date

    • p. (pp.) – pages (pages)

    • Vol. = Volume (as in Vol.4)

    • Vols – volumes (as in 4 vols.)

    • No. – Number

    • Pt. – Part

    • Tech. Rep – Technical Report

    • Supp. – Supplement

  • Most common examples: (Chapter 7)


Entire Book, print version:
Davidson, M.R., London, M.L., & Ladewig, P.W. (2016). Maternal-newborn nursing & women’s health across
the lifespan (10th ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Electron version of print book:
Shotton, M.A. (2015). Computer addiction? A study of computer denpendency [DX reader version]. Retrieved
from http:/www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/html/index.asp
Electronic-only book
O’Keefe, E. (n.d.) Egoism & crisis in Western values. Retrieved from
http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=135

Journal:

Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., & Harlow, T. (2016) There’s more to self-esteem than
whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.
Schmidt, J. V. (2017). HPV vaccine: Implications for nurses and patients. Nursing for Women’s Health, 11, 83-

87.
Journal article with digital object identifiers (DOI):
Herbst-Damm, K.L. & Kulik, J.A. (2017) Volunteer support, martial status, and the survival times of terminally

ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 224-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225
Journal article without DOI
Sillick, T.J. & Schutte, N. S. (2016). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early
parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from
http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.as/index.php/ejap
Reference book
VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.) (2017) APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological
Association.
Blog post (76, p. 215):
PZ Myers. (2017, January 22). The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web
log post]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/the_unfortunate_prerequisites.php

Reference

American Psychological Association (2009). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
(6th Ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

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