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Technical Information

Hydraulic Model Test for Circulating Water, and Essential Service Water Intake Structures of Shin-Kori Nuclear Power Plant Units 5&6

March 2017




















The primary objective of the model study is to verify the water flow condition in the pump sump using scaled physical models and achieve hydraulically acceptable engineering modification for the Circulating Water (CW)/Essential Service Water (ESW) intake pumps of the Shin-Kori Nuclear Power Plant Units 5&6 (hereinafter called SKN 5&6) under any possible operating conditions.

Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Company (hereinafter called KHNP) has launched the project to construct the SKN 5&6 for which KEPCO E&C is the Architect Engineer. To facilitate the performance of A/E services on the SKN 5&6 Project, KEPCO E&C is planning to make a contract to perform Hydraulic Model Tests for Circulating Water Intake Structure and Essential Service Water Intake Structures of the SKN 5&6.

The SKN 5&6 are rated at approximately 1400MWe each and will be constructed in the vicinity of the Shin-Kori 3&4 site.

1) Plant Name : SKN 5&6

2) Owner : KHNP

3) Location of site : Shinam, Ulsan City, South Korea

4) Capacity : 1400MWe/Unit

5) Scheduled concrete pouring date

  • ESW Intake Structure Unit 5: August 16, 2017(#5 ESWIS Basemat)

  • CW Intake Structure Unit 5: August 1, 2017(#5 CWIS Basemat)












    1. The work consists of the physical model tests and desk studies to optimize and/or verify the design of the intake structure for the Circulating Water (CW) intake pumps and Essential Service Water (ESW) intake pumps of the SKN 5&6 under the any operating conditions.

    1. The physical model test shall be conducted in two phases. The first phase shall include the screening tests to determine whether or not the CW/ESW pumps function satisfactorily under the original sump layout and the operating conditions identified in Section 3. Model modifications adopting the flow improvement devices such as baffle bar, splitter, grating, corner fillet, etc. shall be studied in the second phase to develop desirable flow conditions that meet the requirements in Section 5 and the acceptance criteria of the CW/ESW pumps provided by pump vendors and/or standards. Flow characteristics of the finalized sump layout shall be documented in the second phase report (final report) to guarantee the satisfactory performance of the pump over the complete range of operating conditions. All related work for the physical model test shall be performed in conformance with US NRC RG 1.125 Rev. 2.

  1. Preparation of detailed work schedule

  2. Preparation of test procedures/plan

  3. Design/construction of the model

  4. Calibration of all certificated instruments

  5. Initial hydraulic model testing

  6. Preparation of interim report

  7. Final hydraulic model testing

  8. Witness testing

  9. Preparation of final report which provides the basis for the interpretation of model results and for any conclusion reached

  10. Preparation of the responses to the questions raised by the regulatory body and owner

    1. A hydraulic study shall be conducted to evaluate the following conditions under the possible combinations of pumping operation.

  1. Water levels in front of intake structure not only caused by tsunamis, basin oscillations, storm surges and abnormal intake pump operation conditions (i.e., abrupt pump trip or startup) but also caused by the blockage of submerged intake tunnel(s).

  2. Wave force(s) on the retaining wall generated under or after above conditions

  3. 3-dimensional approach flow pattern and velocities toward unit 5&6 intake structures

  4. Simulation of sediment and debris concerns


    1. The CW/ESW systems for the SKN 5&6 are a once-through type cooling water system using seawater from the East Sea. The intake structures of the SKN 5&6 are located along the intake reservoir. The water for the CW/ESW system will be drawn through two submerged intake tunnels which are connected between East sea and the intake reservoir.

    1. The CW intake structure houses six (6) center-flow type travelling screens, six (6) CW pumps, two (2) CL (Chlorination) seawater supply pumps, two (2) CW screen wash (CW SW) pumps. Each CW pump is located in pump compartment downstream of a travelling screen and isolated from adjacent pumps by vertical concrete walls.

Each CW pump capacity is 171,800 gpm as a rated flow. Two (2) CL (Chlorination) seawater supply pumps are installed between the travelling screen and CW pump. Each CL seawater supply pump is rated at approximately 360 gpm at low water level.

Two (2) CW screen wash pumps are located in the CW intake structure to backwash the travelling screens. The location of the screen wash pumps in the CW intake structure. Each CW screen wash pump will be rated at about 634 gpm.

Flow toward any pump sumps can be blocked with a stop gate reserved for pump maintenance or repair.

    1. ESW intake structure is located adjacent to the CW intake structure. In the ESW intake structure, there are two (2) center-flow type travelling screens, four (4) ESW pumps, and four (4) ESW screen wash pumps. The ESW system consists of two pumps for one train and two trains for one unit. Two (2) ESW pumps are installed in parallel per train (division).

Each ESW pump is rated at approximately 18,000 gpm. Each screen wash pump is rated at 94 gpm.

During normal operation, one pump per train is always in operation. During plant startup/shutdown and refueling, both trains of 4 ESW pumps shall be in operation. One pump in either one of two trains shall be in service during plant abnormal/accident conditions.

Flow toward any pump sumps can be blocked with a stop gate reserved for pump maintenance or repair.

    1. Additional and detailed information for pumps, traveling screen, trash rack, etc. will be provided to the contractor.


    1. Water from the East Sea flows into the intake reservoir through submerged intake tunnels which feed seawater to two (2) CW/ESW intake structures for the SKN 5&6. The water levels at the intake reservoir will be provided after contract.

    1. As a general rule, the CW intake structure model shall include at least one unit of CW intake structure, the sumps, travelling screens, CL pumps, CW SW pumps, CW pumps, trash racks, and vertical retaining walls along one side of intake reservoir.

The physical model for the ESW intake structure covers the sumps, travelling screens, ESW SW pumps, ESW pumps, trash racks, and the vertical retaining walls between the CW intake structure and ESW intake structure. The ESW model shall include at least one unit of ESW intake structure and one simplified CW intake structure to simulate flow effects on the ESW pumps by CW approach flow.

Furthermore, the model study shall be performed to figure out the mutual effect of CW and ESW intake structures for SKN 5&6.

    1. The contractor shall propose a proper modeling scheme. The contractor can exclude some part of intake reservoir, if they assure that the modified flow pattern by excluding some parts does not affect water levels and velocities in both sides of the pump bay and intake reservoir. In this case, the contractor shall provide sufficient explanation of why they can omit the part of the intake reservoir in the model.

The contractor may perform Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis to understand the flow patterns near the CW/ESW intake structures by using the qualified program (software) with an engineering verification. The flow pattern predictable from a flow assessment by CFM can be used for the possible simplification of model construction, installation of dummy pumps for CW intake flow effects, etc.

    1. The contractor shall propose optimization tests for the flow in the pump bay, starting from the trash racks through the traveling screens until the pump bell mouth.

    1. To demonstrate that the flow pattern is appropriate in the model, visual observations and velocity measurements shall be conducted upstream of the traveling screens and in front of the pump inlet within the optimization test. The detailed acceptance criteria for approach flow patterns will be provided later by KEPCO E&C.

    1. In the case that the suction of CL and SW pumps cannot be reproduced in the model, the contractor shall describe the technical reasons in the report.

    1. The performance of CW pumps shall be investigated at any possible water levels including the minimum water level considering all anticipated operating combinations including the number of operating pumps.

    1. The contractor can reduce the test cases taking into consideration the symmetry of structural configuration. In this case, the contractor shall document reasons for doing so, along with appropriate background. In addition, CW pumps shall be tested at several water levels (HHWL, MSL, LLWL, PLWL and some abnormal water levels) combined with the pump operation conditions to understand the sensitivity of the different flow patterns. ESW pumps shall be tested in the same cases as CW pumps and combinations with rated flow of CW pumps operating even though the CW pump has been tripped case by low water level.

    1. The CW/ESW model tests can be performed independently when the model scales for CW/ESW models are different. Each pump model test shall be completed at least two (2) months before the concrete pouring schedule of the relevant intake structure.

If the contractor cannot assure the completions before the scheduled construction, the alternative test plan shall be suggested for supporting construction.

    1. The contractor shall describe the total number of model test cases taking into account the number of operating pumps in the proposal with an appropriate explanation.

    1. The sufficient flow-rectifying area for CW/ESW model tests shall be preserved upstream of the sump inlet to minimize the flow effects supplied by the control pump at the test basin.

    1. Seawater flows through the trash rack and the center-flow type travelling screen (mesh opening size; 2.5 mm x 2.5 mm for ESW intake structure and 6.0 mm x 6.0 mm for CW intake structure) finally approaches the CW, ESW pump inlet bells.

    1. The head loss at the trash rack could be considered when the trash rack is not reproduced in the model. The artificial head drop applied in the model should be documented in the interim report.

    1. Expected head loss through the travelling screen can be considered in the model test if the screen mesh is not modeled sufficiently. According to the travelling screen data obtained from the reference plants, head losses of up to 1.0 ft H2O are expected through the travelling screens at LLWL condition. The head losses of the travelling screen shall be finalized and documented in the hydraulic model test under various water level conditions.

    1. The cooling water for the plant is seawater. When fresh water is used instead of seawater in the model test, the documentation for the technical backup should be addressed in the interim report and final report.

    1. The number of CW pumps in operation per Unit is 4, 5 or all 6 pumps at all water level conditions except for PMWL (Probable Maximum Water Level) and PLWL (Probable Lowest Water Level) condition. Normally one (1) of two CL seawater supply pumps will be in operation. The CW screen wash pumps will perform intermittently. The contractor shall suggest the number of test cases for preliminary test, optimization test and final test of CW intake structure with an adequate justification.

    1. The number of ESW pumps in operation per unit is expected to be two (2) pumps under all water level conditions including PMWL and PLWL conditions. Namely, only one (1) ESW pump per train is operated in all plant operation modes. The ESW screen wash pumps will perform intermittently. The contractor can suggest the number of test cases for the preliminary test, optimization test and final test of ESW intake structure with an adequate justification.

    1. The final tests shall include the abnormal/extreme operating conditions such as the clogging of travelling screen, surge of intake reservoir/pump bay, etc.


    1. The model shall be undistorted and the contractor shall suggest adequate model scale to serve the purpose of the model test. Also, the model scale should be suggested reasonably to minimize the scale effects between the model and prototype (such as reference plant) in terms of hydraulic similitudes such as Reynolds, Froude, Weber number. The contractor shall apply hydraulic similitude between model and prototype in the interim report. These applied hydraulic similitudes have to explain the swirl and/or vortex of pump inlet and pipe flow.

    1. Material of the model shall be transparent for visualizing investigated hydraulic phenomena. In particular, the roughness of the surface used in the model shall be documented in terms of geometric similitude with that of the prototype.

    1. The CW/ESW pump shafts in the model shall be vertically movable to examine the effects of the bottom clearance between pump bell-mouth and pump sump floor.

    1. The model test shall correctly simulate the flow velocity distributions from the entrance of the CW, ESW pump bays to the pump bell-mouth as well as the potential occurring and/or formation of vortices originating from the water surface, walls, or floor. The pre-rotations in the suction pipe shall be counted as well.

    1. The model shall be equipped with a flow measuring system for velocities, water levels, etc. at adequate locations with an accuracy of ±2 percent within the range of interest.

    1. All instruments equipped in the models shall be calibrated prior to the model tests. The contractor shall provide a calibration certificate of the instruments before the tests.

    1. The recommended flow improvement devices shall be acceptable in terms of construction, costs and maintenance of equipment such as pumps. A drawing for showing dimension and location of the flow improvement devices recommended from the models shall be submitted to KEPCO E&C for approval.

    1. Documentation of instrument calibrations, calculation review, model dimensions, and model test data shall be maintained by the contractor and also supplied to KEPCO E&C.

    1. For the general test procedure, ANSI/HI 9.8-1998 standard shall be used unless otherwise noted in this Section. The contractor may use other standards if approved by KEPCO E&C.


    1. The measurement shall not be started until constant flow rate and stable water levels in the model are accomplished.

    1. Following general acceptance criteria for the CW, ESW pumps are applied: and also ‘Centrifugal/Vertical Pump Intake Design’ (ANSI/HI 9.8-1998), BHRA (British Hydraulics Research Association) guideline or applicable standards could be applied.

  • Air-entraining free surface vortices are not acceptable.

  • High speed submerged vortices (tornadoes) are not acceptable in the vicinity of the pump bell-mouth.

  • Flow pre-rotation angle in the pump bell-mouth shall be within maximum acceptable range. For the pre-rotation, the criterion of the pump vendor shall be applied. In the event that the pump vendor does not prescribe the permitted angle of pre-rotations, generally accepted criteria may be used. The pre-rotation angle should be less than 5°.

  • Temporal and spatial velocity variations in the pump bell-mouth shall not be greater than 10%.

    1. The scale effects shall be demonstrated in the model test with 1.5 times Froude number or equivalent.

    1. Potentially unstable flow conditions such as back currents, persistent unsteadiness, and waviness in approach flow or persistent large-scale turbulence in pump sump will be rejected.

    1. The water feeding of the pump bell-mouth shall be stable and uniform in all directions.

    1. Flow fluctuations in the pump bell-mouth shall not be allowed.


All the test data obtained during the model test shall be submitted. The reports shall describe the accomplished tasks along with the basic test data for the work completed during the model test. Descriptive photographs and appropriate suggestions on revisions to the Contract should be included. The Regulatory Guide 1.125, Rev.2 ‘Physical Models for Design and Operation of Hydraulic Structures and Systems for Nuclear Power Plants’ by US NRC shall be used as a reference for the preparation of the test plan, interim and final reports. Documentation of instrument calibrations, calculation review, model dimensions, and model data shall be maintained by the contractor and also supplied to KEPCO E&C.

    1. Detailed work schedule

Upon award, the contractor shall submit within two weeks a detailed overall work schedule showing the model design, model construction, test program and report submittals.

    1. Model design

The information on the model design including the drawing, model scale and detailed calculation shall be submitted for approval, prior to the construction of the model.

    1. Test schedule

The test schedule shall be submitted to KEPCO E&C for approval prior to commencing the tests. When revision of the model test schedule is advisable during the model testing, a revised test schedule shall be submitted to KEPCO E&C for approval.

    1. Test procedures

The test procedures including acceptance criteria and the test cases in combination of possible pump operation modes shall be prepared and submitted to KEPCO E&C for approval prior to the model test. The checklist form for the test shall be also provided in the test procedure. The measuring interval for the pre-rotation, velocity variation, etc. shall be stated in the test procedure.

    1. Test plan

Before constructing the physical model, the test plan for each model test shall be submitted to KEPCO E&C including the following information:

  • The problem(s) to be solved

  • Reasons for selecting the physical hydraulic model chosen to resolve the problem

  • Expected results and how these results will solve the stated problem(s)

  • Detailed description of the model, including a description of materials, instrumentation, and methods used to measure parameters, including resolution and error of instrumentation, scale relations, and other physical characteristics of the model

  • Detailed description of the testing facilities

  • Methods that will be used to analyze the data obtained from the model studies

  • Schedule of expected tests, including proposed start and completion dates, and estimated dates

    In addition, the calibration certificates of the instruments used for the model tests shall be provided before the model tests.

    1. Interim Report

Two copies of the interim report shall be submitted to KEPCO E&C within two weeks after the initial testing is completed. The following criteria state the minimum requirements for the interim report.

  • When the initial hydraulic model test is completed, the interim report shall be submitted.

  • The report shall include an assessment of the flow characteristics for each operation combination, e.g., air-entraining and submerged vortices, etc.

  • The report shall include recommendations for anticipated modifications (such as pump bell-mouth clearance, splitters, corner filling, flow guiding vanes, surface beam, etc. if required).

  • The report shall include the calculation and evaluation of expected head loss through the travelling screen at various flow levels.

  • The report shall also recommend the optimized test cases in terms of model fabrication, the flow of approach bays, pump operation conditions, water levels, pumping rate, exaggerated flow test, etc. Furthermore, the report shall address the following issues with respect to flow conditions during the initial hydraulic model test.

  1. air entrainment

  2. vortex

  3. pre-rotation

  4. asymmetry and excessive turbulence

  5. fluctuating load of pump impellers (at non-uniform velocity profile at impeller inlet)

  6. vibration (which may occur in the prototype due to the rotation of the impeller)

  7. cavitation (which may occur at non-uniform flow at the impeller or at large number of pre-rotations)

  8. loss of pump capacity and efficiency

  9. focusing on the scale effects, other concerns such as:

a) Froude number

b) Euler number

c) Reynolds number

d) Weber number

  • The report shall discuss the other subjects required in Subsections 3 and 4 as well.

    1. Final Report

Two copies of the final draft shall be submitted to KEPCO E&C for review within two weeks after the witness testing is completed. Ten (10) copies of the final report shall be submitted by official letter to KEPCO E&C within four (4) weeks after the contractor receives the reviewed copy of the final draft report and incorporates the comments into the final draft. The report shall include at least the following items:

  • Similarity criteria and deviation of model-prototype-flow relationships

  • Experimental facilities and instrumentation and its accuracy

  • Contents of interim report

  • Model test procedure, data acquisition, and test case reduction program assessed after the initial hydraulic model testing

  • Drawings and photographs showing the detailed model

  • Photographs documenting the operation of the model at various test conditions in reservoir and pump bay including the original and final designs

  • Velocity profiles and other data plots as required to illustrate the characteristic of the pump performance of the original design

  • Performance of the modified design in pump bay/sump

  • Results and discussion

  • An appendix discussing experimental errors and confidence limits of the results

    1. Movie and Presentation File

A video format file with oral narration in English shall be produced to easily explain the whole procedure of the model test. The movie file shall show the original model, the modified model, the rejected flow patterns, and the acceptable flow patterns for the relevant pump operation modes including the explanation for the measuring instruments and the flow loop system of the test basin. Four copies of a DVD containing the movie file shall be submitted. High resolution of the movie files displaying every stages of the model test shall be submitted.

The ppt format file in English shall be submitted to present a summarized physical model description, testing steps, conclusion and recommendation to improve the flow patterns including those of the hydraulic study

    1. Hydraulic Study Report

The draft and final hydraulic study report for water levels, water pressure on retaining wall, flow velocities and sedimentation in the reservoir shall be submitted to evaluate/verify the applied numbers in the physical model test conditions and to provide analysis results with recommendations.


KEPCO E&C will observe and comment on the testing process through the submittals mentioned in Section 6. Also, KEPCO E&C will review and witness the critical stages of model construction and testing during all phases of the work.

    1. Kick-off/Engineering Meeting

KEPCO E&C’s personnel will attend the Kick-off/Engineering Meeting at the Contractor’s office prior to the initial test in order to review the model construction, test condition, test procedure, etc. of physical model test.

    1. Witness test

The model test shall be completed after the representatives from KEPCO E&C, KHNP and pump vendor participating in the witness test at the contractor’s test facilities confirm that the model test result meets the criteria mentioned in Section 5.


    1. Prior to commencement of activities affecting quality, but within 30 days afterward Contract, the Contractor shall submit one (1) controlled copy of its QA program for KEPCO E&C’s approval.

    1. The Contractor shall establish and implement an acceptable CFSIs(Counterfeit, Fraudulent, Suspect Items) Control Program. if needed, Completeness of Goods shall be confirmed through sample test, etc., at its own expense.

    1. The Contractor shall not submit forged·falsified or any other wrongful Quality Verification Documents to KEPCO E&C in relation to the contract fulfillment of this tender. If the Contractor fails to do so, he or she shall be subject to criminal penalties, constraint to participation in tenders as an unjust contractor, cancellation of registration onto and prohibition on reentrance into KEPCO E&C’s qualified contractor’list of quality-related equipment and materials(for a certain period of time), claims for damages, and so on.

    1. Notification of significant deficiency

Upon recognizing the following significant deficiencies, the Contractor shall immediately notify KEPCO E&C verbally, and within seven⑺ working days, shall submit to KEPCO E&C documents describing the type and nature of the deficiencies, technical review results, and a disposition plan for KEPCO E&C’s review and approval.

  • Deviation that could create a substantial safety hazard in performance and function of quality related items due to the use or application of inadequate material, parts and components.

  • Serious damages on structure, system, and components, and significant deviations occurred during construction and installation which need extensive evaluation, extensive redesign, or extensive repair work to meet criteria and design bases because they cannot perform the intended safety function.

  • Final design documents such as approved drawings and specifications that involve fundamental deviations from the applicable regulatory requirements or technical standards.

  • Quality related activities that are not generally implemented in compliance with the QA Manual, or the irreversible collapse of the QA system.

  • The Supplier for the safety related items(Q Class) shall comply with the Reporting Requirements of the Defects and Noncompliance as per U.S.A 10 CFR 21 and/or the Korea Nuclear Safety Act(Nuclear Safety Act Article 15.3 and NSSC Notice 2014-080).


    1. Regarding the model test for SKN 5&6, the contractor shall prepare the response on the questions issued by the regulatory bodies.

    1. The contractor shall provide the references cited on the report to KEPCO E&C if required.

    1. The model for ESW pump sump should not be dismantled until the regulatory body for the SKN 5&6 reviews the submittals. The model can be removed after the regulatory body (or, KHNP and KEPCO E&C) agreement on the approaching flow pattern and the flow improving devices after the completion of the witness test.

Each model test shall be completed at least 2 months before the concrete pouring of each intake structure as provided in Clause 2 of Chap. 1.

From former experience, each CW/ESW model test takes 3 month independently. But in this case, the tight schedule is preferable.

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