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FINAL IS3 Backup and Recovery Guide Release 2.3








Avaya Intelligent Solutions Support System

Release 2.3

Backup and Recovery Guide

Revision History

Author

Revision Date

Revision

Reason for Change

Shari Jones

5/30/2001

.01

Original Document.

Shari Jones

6/29/01

1.0

Final First Draft

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 6

1.1 Backup and Recovery Document Purpose 6

1.2 Audience 6

2 IS3 File System and Database Backup 7

2.1 Overview 7

2.2 Rewinding the Tape 7

2.3 Database Backup 7

2.3.1 Online Oracle Backup 7

2.3.2 Offline Oracle Backup 8

2.4 File System Back Up Procedures 10

2.4.1 Online File System Backup ( SASP01 ) 10

3 Recovery 12

4 General Overview of Database Structure 13

4.1 Database Files 13

4.2 Online and Offline Redo Log Files 13

4.3 Control Files 13

4.4 Rollback Segments 14

Glossary 15

Index 17


1Introduction

1.1Backup and Recovery Document Purpose


The Avaya Intelligent Solutions Support System Backup and Recovery Guide serves two purposes:

  1. It provides recommendations for backing up Avaya IS3, including online, offline and hot backups.

  2. It provides recommendations for recovering database information in required.

This Backup and Recovery Guide consists of chapters and associated appendices. The chapters serve as a recommendation of how to backup and recover data from the IS3 system. The appropriate means of backup and recovery for each customer depends on its existing network infrastructure, and the contents of this document are recommendations only.

1.2Audience


The primary audience for this Backup and Recovery Guide is the Operations and Maintenance Support Team.

2IS3 File System and Database Backup

2.1Overview


Avaya recommends three types of backup processes for the IS3 system – online IS3 system backup, offline database backup and online database backup. The Saudi IS3 platform will be shipped with a database and IS3 backup already in place. An export of Saudi Telecom’s system provides a miniature copy of the system database information in the event that recovery is required.

2.2Rewinding the Tape


Action

Expected Result

  1. Login to SASP01 as a normal user.

A command prompt displays (such as, abangcol 1>).

  1. At the command prompt, type:
    mt –f /dev/rmt/1 rewoffl,
    and press the ENTER key.

The cursor prompt will delay for less than 30 seconds, then the SASP01 command prompt displays.

  1. At the command prompt, type:
    mt –f /dev/rmt/1n stat

    This command checks the status of the tape to determine if it is back online, allowing you to proceed to the next backup.

The following displays:

SCSI tape drive :

Sense key(0x6)= Unit Attention Residual=0 Retries=0 file no=0 block no =0. Then the tape is back online.

Note: Allow about a two-minutes after you rewind the tape before you check the status.


2.3Database Backup

2.3.1Online Oracle Backup


Online Oracle backup, as the first part of the backup, should take place once per week. Specific Oracle directories on SASP01 are backed up on a weekly basis, usually mid-week. They include:

  • /db01

  • /db02

  • /db03

  • /db04

  • /db05

  • /db06

  • /db07

  • /db08

  • /db09

  • /db10

  • /db11

  • /db12

  • /db13

  • /db14

Make sure that the tape is rewound and back online before you run this backup procedure (Refer to Section 3.2).

Action

Description

  1. Login to SASP01.




  1. Type: su –, then type the root password. You should be logged in as root.

A console command prompt displays (#).

  1. At the root command prompt, type: /backup/scripts/online_backup.ksh

    Then, type:
    /backup/scripts/online_to_tape.ksh

The first script backs up Oracle database files in a compressed file.
The second script writes the compressed file to tape.

  1. After the backup is complete, you must rewind the DLT 7000 on SASP01. Refer to Section 3.2 to rewind the tape.

Refer to Section 3.2.


2.3.2Offline Oracle Backup


Offline backup as the second part of the backup should take place once per week. It requires a shutdown of Oracle, and the database will be offline. Scripts generated by cron (a scheduler) copy information to database tables at routine intervals. Oracle writes information to database tables, which are backed up weekly on disk. Next, Oracle writes the database disk backups and IS3 system backups to a backup tape, providing a permanent backup. Specific Oracle directories on SASP01 are backed up on a weekly basis, on weekends. They include:

  • /db01

  • /db02

  • /db03

  • /db04

  • /db05

  • /db06

  • /db07

  • /db08

  • /db09

  • /db10

  • /db11

  • /db12

  • /db13

  • /db14

Note: Make sure that the tape is back online before you run this backup procedure (Refer to Section 3.2).

Action

Expected Result

  1. Login to SASP01.




  1. Type su – , then type the root password. You should be logged in as root.

The root console command prompt displays (#).

  1. To manually backup Oracle offline, at the root command prompt, type: /backup/scripts/offline_backup.ksh

    Then, type:
    /backup/scripts/offline_to_tape.ksh

The first script backs up Oracle database files in a compressed file.
The second script writes the compressed file to tape.

  1. To monitor the status of the backup, access it on the log file it writes. The log file it writes is stored in /tmp. The log file name is: oracle_offline_to_tape.date (current date, using MMDDYY format)

    To access the log file, type:
    tail –f /tmp/oracle_offline_to_tapebackup.
    date (current date, using MMDDYY format).log





  1. Rewind the tape before processing the next backup. Check the status of the DLT 7000 to determine if it is back online before proceeding to the next backup. See Section 3.2 to check the tape status.





2.4File System Back Up Procedures

2.4.1Online File System Backup ( SASP01 )


Online file system backup occurs twice per week, usually when the online database backup and the offline database backup occurs. Make sure that the tape is rewound and back online before you run this backup procedure (Ref to Section 3.2).

The following file systems on SASP01 are backed up:

  • /

  • /home

  • /usr

  • /opt/oracle

  • /opt

  • /usr/local

  • /db01

  • /db02

  • /db03

  • /db04

  • /db05

  • /db06

  • /db07

  • /db08

  • /db09

  • /db10

  • /db11

  • /db12

  • /db13

  • /db14

To back up these directories on SASP01:

Action

Expected Result

  1. Login to SASP01.




  1. Type: su – , and then type the root password. You should be logged in as root.

Root console command prompt displays (s#).

  1. At the command prompt, type : /backup/scripts/full_backup.ksh

This script performs a full system backup and must be run as root.

  1. To monitor the status of the backup, access it on the log file it writes. The log file it writes is stored in /tmp, and the log file name is:
    fbackup.(timestamp in MMDDYY format).log.

    To access the log file, type:
    tail –f /tmp/ fbackup.(timestamp in MMDDYY format).log.




  1. You do not have to rewind the tape to do the next backup. Instead, check the status of the DLT 7000 to determine if it is back online before proceeding to the next backup. See Section 3.2 to check the tape status.





3Recovery


Oracle defines two types of failures that require the DBA to perform recovery – instance failure and media failure. An instance failure occurs when one or more of Oracle’s background processes fail. Media failure occurs when a database file or disk cannot be accessed.

Oracle automatically recovers form instance failure by shutting down and restarting the instance. The database is restored to the state just prior to the instance failure.

Media recovery is more complex than instance recovery in that it can cause the loss of control files, database files and redo logs. Depending on the type of data lost, the DBA must choose the proper mode of recovery. Two types of media recovery exist: normal and incomplete.

Normal media recovery allows the DBA to recover the database to the time that the media failure occurred. Normal media recovery can be either online or offline. Online, in which the database is open during recovery, is recommended. Offline recovery takes place when the database is closed.

Incomplete media recovery allows the DBA to recover the database up to a specific time that a redo log file was lost or up to a specific time and date. Two types of incomplete media recovery exist: manual recovery and point-in-time recovery. Manual recovery retrieves the database information up to the time a specific redo log file was lost or damaged, whereas the point-in-time recovery retrieves the database up to a specific date and time.

If recovery is required, consult a professional Oracle database administrator. Do not attempt to recover lost data without first referencing Oracle database manuals and a professional Oracle DBA.

4General Overview of Database Structure


Proper backup and recovery procedures can prevent heavy loss of data during an unexpected database failure. Understanding the structure of an Oracle database and the IS3 system to which data is written lays the groundwork for successful backup and recovery procedures. In addition, knowing current back-up procedures for Oracle and IS3 is essential.

Essential components of Oracle databases consist of database files, redo logs, control files, and rollback segments.

4.1Database Files


An Oracle database consists of one or more database files, either UNIX files or raw disk partitions. One or more physical database files form a logical unit known as a tablespace. Tablespaces are a required portion of the database backup and recovery procedures.

4.2Online and Offline Redo Log Files


Another essential component in these processes is redo log files. Redo logs are a set of files that are external to the database. Oracle maintains a record of all committed transactions in the redo logs, as well as instances of uncommitted transactions. Two types of redo log files exist, online and offline.

An online redo log file is the file to which committed transactions are written. Offline redo log files are files that have been archived. Redo logs are used in a circular fashion. When one log fills up, Oracle begins writing to the next available redo log, a process known as a log switch.

4.3Control Files


Control files are binary files that are associated with individual databases at the point of creation. A control file (which cannot be edited) is required to open and access a database, making it a necessary element to the recovery procedure.

The cntrl(databasename).dbf control file contains the following information:

  • Name of physical database and redo log files

  • Timestamp of database creation

  • Database name

  • Current log sequence number for the archiver

The control file is updated continuously during database use and cannot be edited. As an integral part of the database, it is recommended that multiple copies be maintained.

4.4Rollback Segments


A rollback segment is a disk storage area that contains uncommitted transactions from the database. Rollback segments can be used to rollback work during the recovery procedure.

Glossary


Definitions and Abbreviations

Term

Definition

System

A comprehensive package hardware and software that addresses the needs of a business. The A2K System will be built on top of the A2K Architecture

Component

A unit or units of executable code sharing a well-defined interface through which it offers services via a software bus.

A component may be written in-house, or it may be purchased from a 3rd party.

Operational Domain

A set of procedures that completely address some well-defined business or architectural process.

Sub-System

A component whose service offering covers an entire operational domain.

Logical Sub-System

A sub-system whose constituent components, while considered part of a greater whole, will not necessarily be deployed on the same hardware platform.

Data Store

A generic term used to indicate the repository where an application stores any operational data. This data may exist only while the application is active.

A data store may reside in a memory structure, a message queue, a flat file, a database or any other data storage mechanism.

Business Planes

A technique for layering the core processes of a business from high levels of abstraction down to operational details and systems. Each plane or level of abstraction is used to support the function and operations of the plane above it.

Software Bus

This is the publish/subscribe messaging infrastructure that will be used to connect integrated systems into the A2K framework.

Persistent Store

A generic term used to indicate the repository where an application stores any operational data that must be kept, or persisted, between invocations of the application.. Examples of persistent stores would be a DBMS or flat file.

Business Object

Refers to a business entity, like customer, subscriber and order, that has been identified and whose behavior has been modeled in the Business Model.

Internationalization

I18N

Refers to hardware, software, and documentation enhancements, and/or any changes or adjustments to a product that must occur in order to allow or facilitate the sale of that product outside the United States of America.


Index


C

Control Files 13

D

Database Backup 7

Database Files 13

F

File System Back Up Procedures 10

G

General Overview of Database Structure 13

Glossary 15

O

Offline Oracle Backup 8

Online and Offline Redo Log Files 13

Online File System Backup ( SASP01 ) 10

Online Oracle Backup 7

R

Recovery 12

Rewinding the Tape 7

Rollback Segments 14



Copyright Notification

Copyright  2001 by Avaya Inc. All rights reserved.

This document contains unpublished, proprietary, and confidential company information. This material is kept confidential to preserve strategic information and to secure this document as an unpublished work. In the event of publication, Avaya Inc. may seek to enforce its rights to this document as a published work.

Reproduction and Nondisclosure Warning

No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without the written authorization of Avaya Inc.. The contents of this document may not be disclosed or used, in whole or in part, without the written permission of Avaya Inc..



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