International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights


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United Nations

CCPR/C/USA/4



International Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights


Distr.: General

22 May 2012
Original: English
Human Rights Committee

Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 40 of the Covenant

Fourth periodic report

United States of America* **

[30 December 2011]

Contents

Paragraphs Page

I. Introduction 1–4 3

II. Implementation of specific provisions of the Covenant 5–501 4

Article 1 – Self determination 5–31 4

Article 2 – Equal protection of rights in the Covenant 32–114 11

Article 3 – Equal rights of men and women 114–143 37

Article 4 – States of emergency 144–145 48

Article 5 – Non-derogable nature of fundamental rights 146 48

Article 6 – Right to life 147–170 48

Article 7 – Freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment 171–194 54

Article 8 – Prohibition of slavery 195–207 61

Article 9 – Liberty and security of person 208–216 66

Article 10 – Treatment of persons deprived of their liberty 217–249 69

Article 11 – Freedom from imprisonment for breach of contractual obligation 250 79

Article 12 – Freedom of movement 251–255 79

Article 13 – Expulsion of aliens 256–295 80

Article 14 – Right to fair trial 296–318 88

Article 15 – Prohibition of ex post facto laws 319 94

Article 16 – Recognition as a person under the law 320 95

Article 17 – Freedom from arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home 321–335 95

Article 18 – Freedom of thought, conscience and religion 336–353 98

Article 19 – Freedom of opinion and expression 354–358 103

Article 20 – Prohibition of propaganda relating to war or racial, national or religious hatred 359–374 105

Article 21 – Freedom of assembly 375–379 111

Article 22 – Freedom of association 380–389 112

Article 23 – Protection of the family 390–408 115

Article 24 – Protection of children 409–450 120

Article 25 – Access to the political system 451–480 131

Article 26 – Equality before the law 481–484 137

Article 27 – The rights of minorities to culture, religion, and language 485–501 138

III. Committee concluding observations 502–693 142

A. Territorial scope 504–505 142

B. Applicable law 506–509 143

C. Coordination with the Committee 510–693 144

I. Introduction

1. It is with great pleasure that the Government of the United States of America presents its Fourth Periodic Report to the United Nations Human Rights Committee concerning the implementation of its obligations under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (“the Covenant” or “ICCPR”), in accordance with Covenant Article 40. The United States is committed to promoting and protecting human rights. In the words of President Barack H. Obama:

“By no means is America perfect. But it is our commitment to certain universal values which allows us to correct our imperfections, to improve constantly, and to grow stronger over time. Freedom of speech and assembly has allowed women, and minorities, and workers to protest for full and equal rights at a time when they were denied. The rule of law and equal administration of justice has busted monopolies, shut down political machines that were corrupt, ended abuses of power. Independent media have exposed corruption at all levels of business and government. Competitive elections allow us to change course and hold our leaders accountable. If our democracy did not advance those rights, then I, as a person of African ancestry, wouldn't be able to address you as an American citizen, much less a President. Because at the time of our founding, I had no rights -- people who looked like me. But it is because of that process that I can now stand before you as President of the United States.”

Remarks by President Obama at the New Economic School, Moscow, July 7, 2009.

2. Treaty reporting is a way in which the Government of the United States can inform its citizens and the international community of its efforts to ensure the implementation of those obligations it has assumed, while at the same time holding itself to the public scrutiny of the international community and civil society. As Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has stated, “Human rights are universal, but their experience is local. This is why we are committed to holding everyone to the same standard, including ourselves.” In implementing its treaty obligation under ICCPR Article 40, the United States has taken this opportunity to engage in a process of stock-taking and self-examination. The United States hopes to use this process to improve its human rights performance. Thus, this report is not an end in itself, but an important tool in the continuing development of practical and effective human rights strategies by the U.S. Government. As President Obama has stated, “Despite the real gains that we’ve made, there are still laws to change and there are still hearts to open.”

3. The organization of this periodic report follows the General Guidelines of the Human Rights Committee regarding the form and content of periodic reports to be submitted by States Parties as contained in document CCPR/C/2009/1. The information supplements that provided in the United States Initial Report of July 1994 (CCPR/C/81/Add.4, published 24 August 1994, and HRI/CORE/1/Add.49, published 17 August 1994, with related supplemental information and hearings), as well as the information provided by the United States in its combined Second and Third Periodic Report (CCPR/C/USA/3), and information provided by the U.S. delegation during Committee meetings considering that report (CCPR/C/SR/2379-2381). It also takes into account the Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee published 18 December 2006 (CCPR/C/USA/CO/3/Rev.1). The United States has provided the text and explanations for reservations, understandings and declarations it undertook at the time it became a State Party to the Covenant in its prior reports. For purposes of brevity those descriptions and explanations will not be repeated in this report.

4. In this report, the United States has considered carefully the views expressed by the Committee in its prior written communications and public sessions with the United States. In the spirit of cooperation, the United States has provided as much information as possible on a number of issues raised by the Committee and/or civil society, whether or not they bear directly on formal obligations arising under the Covenant. During preparation of this report, the U.S. Government has consulted with representatives of civil society and has sought information and input from their organizations. Civil society representatives have raised a variety of concerns on many of the topics addressed in this report, a number of which are noted in the text of the report. The United States Government has also reached out to state, local, tribal, and territorial governments to seek information from their human rights entities on their programs and activities, which play an important part in implementing the Covenant and other human rights treaties. Information received from this outreach is referenced in some portions of the report and described in greater detail in Annex A to the Common Core Document.

II. Implementation of specific provisions of the Covenant

Article 1 – Self determination

5. The United States remains firmly committed to the principle of self-determination, and that principle, set forth in Article 1 of the Covenant, remains at the core of American political life. See generally, U.S. Constitution, Articles I and II.

1. The Insular Areas

6. The United States continues to exercise sovereignty over a number of Insular Areas, each of which is unique and constitutes an integral part of the U.S. political family. Paragraphs 12-25 of the Initial Report and paragraphs 5-14 of the combined Second and Third Periodic Report set forth the policy of the United States of promoting self-government in the Insular Areas of the United States.

7. The Insular Areas of the United States remain the same as indicated in the combined Second and Third Periodic Report. They include Puerto Rico, a Commonwealth that is self-governing under its own constitution; Guam, an unincorporated, organized territory of the United States; American Samoa, an unincorporated, unorganized territory of the United States; the U.S. Virgin Islands, an unincorporated, organized territory of the United States; and the Northern Mariana Islands, a self-governing commonwealth in political union with the United States. The United States has recognized as sovereign, self-governing nations three other areas that were formerly districts of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands: the Marshall Islands (1986), the Federated States of Micronesia (1986) and Palau (1994). Compacts of Free Association are currently in force between the United States and these three nations.

8. The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. As reported in paragraph 8 of the combined Second and Third Periodic Report, the people of Puerto Rico have expressed their views on their relationship with the United States in a number of public referenda, most recently in December 1998. In 1992 President George H.W. Bush declared the policy that the will of the people of Puerto Rico regarding their political status should be ascertained periodically through referenda sponsored either by the United States Government or by the legislature of Puerto Rico, 57 F.R. 57093 (Dec. 2, 1992). This policy has been continued by Presidents Clinton, George W. Bush, and Obama. President Clinton established the President’s Task Force on Puerto Rico’s Status in December 2000, and Task Force Reports have been issued in 2005, 2007, and 2011. In 2009, President Obama expanded the mandate of the Task Force to include recommendations on policies that promote job creation, education, health care, clean energy, and economic development in Puerto Rico. The 2011 Task Force Report included extensive recommendations on these issues, as well as a recommendation, inter alia, that “the President, Congress and the leadership and people of Puerto Rico work to ensure that Puerto Ricans are able to express their will about status options and have that will acted upon.” A link to the 2011 Task Force Report can be found at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/uploads/Puerto_Rico_Task_Force_Report.pdf.

2. American Indians and Alaska Natives

9. The United States is home to over 560 federally recognized tribes, with about 50 percent of the American Indian and Alaska Native population residing on or near their homelands. The United States holds 56 million surface acres and 57 million acres of subsurface mineral estates in trust for American Indians in the contiguous 48 United States, while Alaska Natives and their corporations have property rights in more than 44 million acres of land in Alaska.

10. Current policy. More than 40 years have passed since the United States adopted the policy of greater tribal autonomy. It has enabled tribal governments to establish, develop and enhance tribal institutions and infrastructure ranging from those addressing the health, education and welfare of their communities to those such as tribal courts, fire protection and law enforcement, which have allowed tribes to better protect their communities. The lesson is that empowering tribes to deal with the challenges they face and taking advantage of the available opportunities will result in tribal communities that thrive. Despite the success of this policy, however, the devastating consequences of past policies still haunt the United States. Tribal communities still suffer among the most challenging socioeconomic conditions. Some reservations face unemployment rates of up to 80 percent. Nearly a quarter of all Native Americans live in poverty. Approximately 14 percent of homes on reservations do not have electricity; and 9 percent do not have access to a safe water supply. In some instances, poverty leads to crime and exposure to crime, and Native communities are faced with an increase of youth gangs, violent crime at rates higher than the national average, and high rates of violence against women and children. They are also faced with low rates of school matriculation and completion, and disproportionate health disparities.

11. In the face of these challenges, President Obama believes that tribal leaders must be part of the solution. Thus, the Obama Administration seeks to build relationships between the federal government and tribal governments that rest on mutual respect and working together on a government-to-government basis within the U.S. system. To address the myriad challenges noted above, the Administration has taken a number of steps to strengthen the government-to-government relationships between the United States and federally recognized tribes. For example, on November 5, 2009, President Obama reached out to American Indian and Alaska Native tribes by inviting representatives from the more than 560 federally recognized tribes in the United States to attend a White House Tribal Nations Conference. Nearly 500 tribal leaders participated, as well as Members of Congress, several cabinet secretaries and other senior administration officials from the Departments of State, Justice, Commerce, Education, Energy, Agriculture, Labor, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, the Interior, and the Environmental Protection Agency. President Obama delivered opening and closing remarks and participated in interactive discussion with the leaders. Specific discussions in areas such as economic development and natural resources, public safety and housing, education, and health and labor, were also led by other high-level Administration representatives. Links to the President’s speeches are at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-during-opening-tribal-nations-conference-interactive-discussion-w and at http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-closing-tribal-nations-conference.

12. On November 5, 2009, the President also signed a Memorandum directing every federal agency to develop plans to implement fully Executive Order 13175 on “Consultation and Coordination with Tribal Governments,” which mandates that all agencies have a process to ensure meaningful and timely input by tribal officials in the development of certain policies that have tribal implications. The link to the President’s Memorandum is at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/memorandum-tribal-consultation-signed-president. During 2010, the White House issued a progress report following up on the 2009 Conference. It is at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/rss_viewer/tnc_progress_report.pdf. Tribal consultations are now at historic levels – marking a new era in the United States’ relationship with tribal governments. For example, the United States Environmental Protection Agency finalized an Agency-wide Tribal Consultation Policy on May 4, 2011, to fully comply with Executive Order 13175 on tribal coordination and consultation. The Policy provides tribal governments a meaningful opportunity to provide input before EPA makes final decisions on actions that may affect tribal interests and supports EPA's priority of strengthening its partnership with tribes.

13. A second White House Tribal Nations Conference was held in December 2010 to continue the dialogue and build on the President’s commitment to strengthen the government-to-government relationship between the U. S. Government and federally recognized tribes. The White House issued a synopsis of the event at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/Tribal_Nations_Conference_Final_0.pdf. During this Conference, President Obama announced United States support for the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and noted that the United States was releasing a more detailed statement about U.S. support for the Declaration and the Administration’s ongoing work on Native American issues. The link to the President’s remarks is at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2010/12/16/remarks-president-white-house-tribal-nations-conference. The accompanying statement is at: http://usun.state.gov/documents/organization/153239.pdf. This announcement underscores the U.S. commitment to strengthening the government-to-government relationships with federally recognized tribes and furthering U.S. policy on indigenous issues. The decision represents an important and meaningful change in the U.S. position, and resulted from a comprehensive, interagency policy review, including extensive consultation with tribes.

14. A third Tribal Nations Conference was hosted by President Obama in Washington on December 2, 2011. Session topics included: Creating Jobs and Growing Tribal Economies, Promoting Safe and Strong Tribal Communities, Protecting Natural Resources and Respect for Cultural Rights, Improving Access to Healthcare, Education, Housing, Infrastructure and Other Federal Services, and Strengthening the Government-to-Government Relationship. During the closing session, tribal leaders heard from Education Secretary Arne Duncan and President Obama delivered closing remarks. Earlier the same day, President Obama signed an Executive Order that establishes an initiative that will help expand educational opportunities and improve educational outcomes for all American Indian and Alaska Native students, including opportunities to learn their Native languages, cultures, and histories and receive a complete and competitive education that prepares them for college and a career and productive and satisfying lives. The White House also released a report, “Achieving a Brighter Future for Tribal Nations,” which provides a summary of some of the many actions the Obama Administration has taken to address the concerns of American Indians and Alaska Natives. The link to the President’s remarks, the Executive Order, and the Report is at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/12/02/president-obama-hosts-2011-white-house-tribal-nations-conference.

15. In February 2009, the newly-appointed Secretary of the Interior, Ken Salazar, outlined the Obama Administration’s policies with regard to Indian tribes and Alaska Native communities. Secretary Salazar pledged to restore integrity in governmental relations with Indian tribes and Alaska Native communities, to fulfill the United States’ trust responsibilities to Native Americans and to work cooperatively to build stronger economies and safer Native American communities, by helping address economic development, education and law enforcement, and other major challenges facing Indian tribes and Alaska Native communities. Secretary Salazar also pledged to seek to resolve the longstanding litigation concerning the management of Native American lands and assets, as well as the settlement of water rights claims. He reiterated President Obama’s pledge to empower American Indian and Alaska Native people in the development of the national agenda, and stated strong support for tribal self-governance. Secretary Salazar stated that the Department of the Interior would look at ways to preserve native languages through the Indian education system, and would examine other issues related to education. He further stated that he would work to strengthen tribal court systems, and that he planned to address the serious declining conditions of detention facilities in Indian country as well as staffing needs for those facilities. In April 2009, Secretary Salazar announced $500 million in Indian Country Economic Recovery Projects aimed at job creation, construction and infrastructure improvements, and workforce development.

16. In December 2010, Energy Secretary Chu announced the establishment of a Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, led by a member of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe. The office is charged with directing and implementing energy planning and programs that assist tribes with energy development and electrification of Native American lands and homes. The office has done extensive outreach to Indian tribes regarding energy issues on tribal lands and in May 2011 held a Department of Energy Tribal Summit that brought together over 350 participants, including tribal leaders and high-ranking cabinet officials, to interact directly on energy development and related issues. The U.S. Government is also working with tribal leaders to bring high speed internet access to their communities. Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Commerce have programs to do so and have awarded loans and grants worth over $1.5 billion for projects to benefit tribal areas. These infrastructure investments go hand-in-hand with a wide range of projects to create jobs in Indian communities and prepare American Indians and Alaska Natives to fill them.

17. Federal Government – Indian trust relationship. The federal government-Indian trust relationship dates back in some instances over two centuries, and arises from a series of Supreme Court decisions, federal statutes regulating trade with Indian tribes, and Indian treaties. In furtherance of its 19th century policy of assimilation, Congress passed the General Allotment Act of 1887, also known as the “Dawes Act,” 25 U.S.C. 331, et seq. (as amended), which provided that beneficial title to allotted lands would vest in the United States as trustee for individual Indians. See Cobell v. Norton, 240 F.3d 1081, 1087 (D.C. Cir. 2001). The trust had a term of 25 years, at which point a fee patent would issue to the individual Indian allottee. Allotment of tribal lands ceased with the enactment of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (“IRA”). See id. (citing 48 Stat. 984, codified as amended at 25 U.S.C. 461 et seq.). Allotted lands remained allotted, but the IRA provided that unallotted surplus Indian lands would return to tribal ownership. See id. (citing 25 U.S.C. 463). The 1934 Act extended the trust period indefinitely for allotted lands. The federal government retained control of lands already allotted, but not yet fee-patented, and thereby retained its fiduciary obligations to administer the trust lands and funds arising from those lands for the benefit of individual Indian beneficiaries. These lands form the basis for some of the Individual Indian Money (“IIM”) accounts, which are monitored by the Secretary of the Interior. See id. In addition to the IIM accounts, the federal government also holds lands in trust for the tribes. The Secretary of the Interior may collect income from tribal trust property and may deposit it for the benefit of the relevant tribe in the United States Treasury or other depository institution.

18. Approximately 56 million surface acres and 57 million acres of subsurface mineral estates are held in federal trust for the use and benefit of tribes and individual Indians. Trust land is maintained both on and off Indian reservations, and may not be alienated, encumbered, or otherwise restricted without the approval of the Secretary of the Interior. A significant number of acres of land are also owned in fee status whereby an Indian tribe holds the fee to the land pending consideration of a trust acquisition by the United States. The Department of the Interior has taken 105,000 acres of land into trust for tribes in the past two years as part of its effort to restore tribal homelands. In addition, as noted above, Alaska Natives and their corporations have property rights in more than 44 million acres of land in Alaska.

19. The American Indian Trust Fund Management Reform Act. Since Congress amended the Indian Self-Determination Act in 1994, tribes have had the opportunity, subject to the approval of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) of the Department of the Interior (DOI), to manage their own trust accounts, including IIM accounts held for the benefit of individuals. If a tribe chose not to manage its own trust accounts, or if the BIA found that a tribe could not fulfill the necessary fiduciary obligations, the government retained control over the accounts. See Cobell, 240 F.3d at 1088. In 1994, Congress also enacted the Indian Trust Fund Management Reform Act, which recognized the federal government’s preexisting trust responsibilities. Pub. L. No. 103-412 (1994). That Act, among other things, outlined the “Interior Secretary’s duties to ensure ‘proper discharge of the trust responsibilities of the United States.’” Id. at 1090 (quoting 25 U.S.C. 162a(d)).

20. The Cobell case. The Cobell case was filed in 1996 as a class action on behalf of approximately 500,000 individual beneficiaries of IIM accounts, alleging that the Secretaries of the Interior and Treasury had breached their fiduciary duties relating to accounting of IIM accounts, and seeking declaratory and injunctive relief, see Cobell v. Babbit, 30 F. Supp. 2d 24, 29 (D.D.C. 1998). The district court found for the plaintiffs in the initial phase of the case, and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit affirmed and remanded for further proceedings, see Cobell v. Norton, 240 F. 3d, 1081, 1110 (D.D.C. 2001). In September 2003, the district court entered an injunction setting forth detailed requirements for both trust administration and accounting, see Cobell v. Norton, 283 F. Supp. 2d 66 (D.D.C. 2003). In 2008, the district court held that DOI continued to breach its duty to account for trust funds, but that an accounting of the funds was impossible as a matter of law. See Cobell v. Kempthorne, 532 F. Supp. 2d 37, 39, 104 (D.D.C. 2008). The court thus granted monetary relief to the plaintiffs in the amount of $455.6 million, based on the unproven shortfall of the trusts’ actual value as compared to its statistically likely value. See Cobell v. Kempthorne, 569 F. Supp. 2d 223, 238, 251-52 (D.D.C. 2008). Both the plaintiffs and the federal government appealed these rulings. In July 2009, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit rendered its opinion on the appeal, holding that while the district court’s analysis of duty and breach were generally correct, the court had erred in freeing the DOI from its burden to make an accounting. See No. 08-5500 (D.C. Cir., July 24, 2009). The appellate court held that it is within the power of the district court, sitting in equity, to approve a plan for an accounting that efficiently uses limited government resources and does not “exceed the benefits payable to Individual Indians.” Cobell v. Salazar, 573 F. 3d 808, 810 (D.C. Cir. 2009).

21. On December 8, 2009, Attorney General Eric Holder and Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced a negotiated settlement of the Cobell class-action lawsuit. On October 9, 2010, President Obama signed into law the Claims Resolution Act. After fourteen years of litigation, enactment of the Claims Resolution Act finally closed an unfortunate chapter in U.S. history. The Act creates a fund of $1.5 billion to address historic accounting and trust management issues and also allocates up to $1.9 billion to convert some of the most highly fractionated individual Indian lands into land that can be managed for the broader benefit of the respective tribe. As part of the $1.9 billion, a trust fund of up to $60 million dollars is being created for a scholarship fund for Native American students. In addition, this law includes an unprecedented package of four water settlements benefitting seven tribes and their members in Arizona, Montana, and New Mexico. This law acknowledges the water rights of the Crow Tribe, White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the Pueblos of Taos, Tesuque, Nambe, Pojoaque, and San Ildefonso, and will help provide permanent access to secure water supplies year round. The settlement represents a major step forward in President Obama’s agenda to empower tribal governments, fulfill the federal government’s trust responsibilities to tribal members, and help tribal leaders build safer, stronger, healthier and more prosperous communities.

22. Tribal trust cases. In addition to the Cobell case, which concerns trust funds for individual Indians, a number of tribes have sued the federal government in federal district courts and the Court of Federal Claims claiming failure to provide accountings of tribal trust funds and trust assets, and mismanagement of those funds and assets. The plaintiffs seek accountings and money damages. Overall, approximately 100 tribal trust accounting and asset mismanagement cases are pending against the federal government.

23. To ensure that Native Americans are represented among the top officials in this Administration, President Obama and heads of federal departments and agencies have appointed a number of Native Americans to high-level positions. These include: Larry EchoHawk of the Pawnee Nation as Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Indian Affairs; Dr. Yvette Roubideaux of the Rosebud Sioux tribe as the Director of the Indian Health Service; Hilary Tompkins of the Navajo Nation as the Solicitor of the Interior; Lillian Sparks of the Rosebud and Oglala Sioux Tribes as Commissioner for the Administration for Native Americans; Mary McNeil of the Winnebago Tribe as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights for the United States Department of Agriculture; Janie Simms Hipp of the Chickasaw Nation as Senior Advisor to the Secretary of Agriculture on Tribal Relations; Donald “Del” Laverdure of the Crow Nation as the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs in the Department of Interior; Jodi Gillette of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe as former Deputy Associate Director of the White House Office of Intergovernmental Affairs and now Deputy Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs at the Department of the Interior; Tracy LeBeau of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe as Director of the Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs at the Department of Energy; and Kimberly Teehee of the Cherokee Nation as Senior Policy Advisor for Native American Affairs in the White House Domestic Policy Council. Working with tribal leaders, this team is helping to shape federal policies that affect tribal communities.

24. As a follow-up to the first Tribal Nations Conference, Secretary of the Interior Salazar and Secretary of Education Arne Duncan met with prominent Native American educators to discuss the educational challenges and opportunities facing tribal communities and to share strategies that have helped to advance opportunities for Native American students around the nation. In addition to providing support for tribal schools and colleges, the Department of the Interior has actively provided educational and training opportunities for Native American youth related to current energy, environmental and business challenges, often in partnership with universities and research centers. For example, in 2009 and 2010, such opportunities included a partnership with Argonne National Laboratory to mentor American Indian and Alaska Native interns in management of tribal energy and natural resources, and the creation of the Tribal Energy and Environmental Information Clearinghouse (TEEIC) – a knowledge base to help tribes and tribal organizations develop environmental analysis and evaluation programs and processes that further their energy and economic goals (see www.teeic.anl.gov); a partnership with the Colorado School of Mines to assist tribal colleges in developing energy engineering courses; and an annual Indian Education Renewable Energy Challenge for tribal college and Bureau of Indian Affairs high school students, sponsored by the Department of the Interior in partnership with Argonne National Laboratory. Internship and energy challenge opportunities are being planned for 2012.

25. Although tribal lands often have oil, gas, coal, or uranium resources, and tremendous renewable energy resources, tribal communities face immense energy challenges. Tribal lands are home to the most underserved populations in terms of energy services in the United States. American Indians and Alaska Natives have the highest percentage of un-electrified and un-weatherized homes, and the highest rates for fuel and electricity in the country are found in tribal communities. In that context, there is a significant need as well as opportunity for fostering the development of future American Indian and Alaska Native leaders with the scientific and technological skill required to assist tribal communities in managing their lands and developing their energy resources. To help develop these future energy leaders, the Department of Energy contributes to the education of American Indian and Alaska Native youth through two initiatives: Tribal Energy Program’s internship program with Sandia National Laboratory, and a new pilot project called the American Indian Research and Education Initiative (AIREI). AIREI will recruit Native American students to join student/faculty teams to participate in community energy projects on tribal lands, with the mentorship of the Department’s National Laboratories. Through these efforts DOE and the National Laboratory resources are integrated into the national American Indian STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) educational infrastructure, providing a significant contribution to the science education experience of Native American students, particularly those pursuing careers in energy development.

26. Perhaps the most important long-term investment for any country, people, or individual is in education. Tribal leaders have stressed the importance of greater tribal control over the education of American Indian and Alaska Native students. The Administration has proposed changes to the U.S. law to enhance the role of tribes in the education of their youth and to give them greater flexibility in the use of federal funds to meet the unique needs of American Indian and Alaska Native students. The Administration has also accelerated the rebuilding of schools on tribal lands and is working to improve the programs available at tribal colleges.

27. The Administration is also moving forward on other issues critical to members of Indian tribes. For example, the historic reform of the U.S. health care system, enacted in March 2010, includes important provisions to reduce the gaping health care disparities that Native Americans still face. Signing and implementing this landmark law constitutes a major step toward fulfilling our national aspiration to provide high-quality, affordable health care to all citizens, including American Indians and Alaska Natives. First Lady Michelle Obama has also made a particular effort to involve Native American youth in her “Let’s Move!” initiative to address child obesity. She has, for example, recruited Native American athletes to encourage Native American children to adopt healthy lifestyles.

28. Another public health challenge on which the Administration is focusing particularly intensely is the unacceptably high rate of suicide by Native American youth. This tragedy is not unique to North America. The Administration has held listening sessions with tribal leaders across the country.

29. The U.S. government has also made improving public safety in tribal communities a high priority; in 2009, Attorney General Holder announced a Department of Justice initiative for this purpose. The Attorney General met with the leaders of federally-recognized Indian tribes in October 2009 to discuss public safety challenges in tribal communities, and the Department of Justice issued a directive to all United States Attorneys with federally recognized tribes in their districts to develop, after consultation with those tribes, operational plans for addressing public safety in Indian country. The Department also added 28 new Assistant U.S. Attorneys dedicated to prosecuting crime in Indian country in nearly two dozen districts. In addition, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) added nine positions, including six agents to work on Indian country investigations. In 2010, the FBI Office for Victim Assistance added 12 additional Victim Specialist positions to provide victim assistance in Indian country. On July 29, 2010, President Obama signed into law the Tribal Law and Order Act which requires the Justice Department to disclose data on cases in Indian country that it declines to prosecute and gives tribes greater authority to prosecute and punish criminals themselves. The law includes new guidelines and training for domestic violence and sex crimes. In addition, it strengthens tribal courts and police departments and enhances programs to combat drug and alcohol abuse and help at-risk youth. The Department of the Interior has also initiated a major law enforcement program, which has established high priority performance goals for crime reduction on four targeted reservations, resulting in a permanent “surge” on those reservations. The initiative involves “bridge training” for state police officers, enabling them to become federal officers; and collaboration with the Indian Health Service to develop a unified response mechanism to prevent and contain suicide emergencies. This initiative also includes a substantial effort to recruit and hire new personnel.

30. The Department of Justice also has created a Tribal Nations Leadership Council, made up of tribal leaders selected by the federally recognized tribes, to advise the Department on issues critical to Indian country. Combating crimes involving violence against women and children on Native lands is a particularly high priority for the U.S. government. In 2011, the Attorney General launched a Violence Against Women Federal and Tribal Prosecution Task Force composed of federal and tribal prosecutors. The Task Force was created to facilitate dialogue and coordinate efforts between the Department and tribal governments regarding the prosecution of violent crimes against women in Indian country, and to develop best-practices recommendations for both federal and tribal prosecutors. In July 2011, the Department proposed legislation that would significantly improve the safety of Native women and allow federal and tribal law enforcement agencies to hold more perpetrators of domestic violence accountable for their crimes. In addition, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 specifically allocated more than $3 billion to assist tribal communities. These funds are being used to renovate schools on reservations across the country, to create new jobs in tribal economies, improve housing, support health care facilities, and bolster policing services.

31. Indigenous representatives and some representatives of civil society have raised a number of particular concerns. These include access to sacred sites, religious freedom for prisoners at the federal and state levels, and violence against women and children in tribal communities. The Administration is aware of these concerns and is working to address them through the initiatives referenced above and others noted later in this report.
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