Revenue (sales) Expenses = Income

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NameRevenue (sales) Expenses = Income
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Business Transaction:

The exchange of goods, property or services for cash or a promise to pay

Revenue (sales) - Expenses = Income

I-Revenue Centers:

1. Categories of revenue centers

  1. Major revenue centers (i.e. Rooms, Food & Beverage)

  2. Minor revenue centers:

  • Telephone

  • Gift shops

  • Newsstand

  • Valet

  • Laundry

  • Barbershop or beauty salon

  • Recreation centers

2. Revenue centers and financial reports

 Issue supporting schedules or departmental income statements for each revenue center.

 Separate food & beverage revenue center into two: Food schedule and Beverage schedule

 Might use more than one account for Food and also for Beverage

 If the sales volume and expense items are not significant, they might be pooled to a single financial reporting category called other operated departments

 The functions associated with some minor revenue centers may be leased to a Concessionaire, and hence appear on hotel's schedule of rental and other income
3. Fundamental revenue concepts

 Sales and the matching principle!

 Upon deposit receipt, cash shall be debited, and unearned revenue, deposits or credit balances shall be credited
Revenue accounts

  • Room sales

  • Room allowances (Contra revenue account)

  • Food sales

  • Food allowances (Contra revenue account)

  • Beverage sales

  • Beverage allowances (Contra revenue account)

  • Other income-- Food and Beverage department

  • Telephone sales

  • Telephone allowances (Contra revenue account)

  • Other accounts for income earned by the hotel (ex: interest income, dividend income, rental income, concessions income, commissions income, vending machines income (less the cost of merchandise sold), salvage income, and foreign exchange income)

 Net revenue = gross revenue - allowances

 Gross profit = net revenue - cost of sales (merchandise items)

 Gross profit = Net Revenue (ex: for room revenue)
II-Internal Control for Food and Beverage Sales:
1. Guest Check (also called Server's Checks): This initiates the Food & Beverage order taken from the guest, and represents the invoice given to the guest.

 Guest checks should be pre-numbered, tinted and have duplicates. Moreover, it shall be kept in locked storage, in numerical order.

 Used checks, unused checks versus void checks!

 Post to dinner, the server must price and total the guest check (applicable for manual systems), unless the point-of-sale equipment can automatically perform the addition.

 Later, the cashier receives payment or makes the guest sign his/her guest check and deposits everything to the cashier.

 At the end of the shift, the cashier's cash drawer and supporting documents are accounted for (i.e. cash, credit card vouchers, food charges, and any miscellaneous paid-outs). Later, they are reconciled against cash register reading using a daily cashier's report

 Beverage sales in a lounge, a bar… presents a harder job for internal control

 Some basic internal control procedures for beverage sales are listed as follows:

  1. Require the bartender to ring each sale as it is made

  2. Require the bartender to insert each paid check into a locked box

  3. The cash register drawer shall never remain open even for a small period of time

  4. Servers are not allowed to first pay the bartender in cash and collect later from customers

  5. Bartenders should not be allowed to take register readings or reconcile their own cash at the end of their shifts

2. Guest charge privileges: These very privileges are allocated to guests who have provided an imprint of a valid credit card or were given a direct billing privilege at registration. In this case, all guest charges are recorded as debits in their respective guest, or master folios.
III-Accounting Personnel and Front Office Functions:

 Guest ledger includes individual records for each of the hotel's registered guests or an accumulation of guest and master folios.

 Guest ledger accounting (i.e. front office accounting) includes the accumulation of guest charges, credits and payments along with outstanding balances.

 Guest ledger versus city ledger!

 The accounting department is responsible for:

  • Recording the results of front office activities

  • Maintaining the city ledger

  • Accounting for credit card receivable

  • Paying vendors

  • Handling payroll

  • Preparing financial statements (i.e. consolidated income statement and balance sheet)

  • Budgeting

  • Other accounting functions

1. The night auditor:

 Responsible for entering all room charges, separating room taxes from room revenues and insuring that all vouchers have been accounted for and properly posted to each guest folio.

 Prepare the front office room status report and reconcile it with the housekeeper's report for any room discrepancy

 Verify Food & Beverage charges made to guests and charged to their rooms with the daily Food and Beverage sales reports. This duty is conducted, also, for all other revenue centers.

 Guest folio errors (whether overcharges or undercharges) shall be corrected by the night auditor using either a correction or an allowance voucher and posted to a separate allowance journal.

 Responsible for preparing a summary report of the up-to-date amounts owned to the hotel in both guest ledger and city ledger accounts
IV-Some Guidelines for Cashiers:

  1. The opening machine totals for paid and paid-out must be the same figures that appear on the previous shift's cash report as the closing machine totals for paid and paid-out

  2. At the close of the shift, the cashier should subtotal paid and paid-out for the current shift, and record the closing figures in the machine's totals column

  3. If at any stage, cashier accidentally miss-keys any transaction, adjustments can be made to the machine

  4. Net cash received = cash paid-in (closing) - cash paid-in (beginning)

  5. Net cash paid-out = cash paid-out (closing) - cash paid-out (beginning)

  6. Net cash sum of cashier's shift = net cash received - net cash paid-out

  7. The cashier should extract the net cash sum from the cash drawer, and secure the money in the general cashier's safe deposit box until deposited in the Bank

  8. At the end of any shift, the cash drawer should contain exactly the same amount as it did when the cashier opened his/her shift.

  9. If any cash overage or shortage occur, the cashier must recheck the cash report and search all the transaction records for possible miss-keyed entries

V-Cash Internal Control:

The Hotel issues House-banks to Cashiers  First Control Point

At the End of the Shift, each Cashier must prepare the "Cashier's Report"

Each Cashier must deposit the Envelope along with the Cashier's Report to the General Cashier's Safe Deposit Box  Second Control Point

The General Cashier must prepare the Daily General Cashier's Report

The General Cashier must deposit the Bank Accounts on a daily basis or on a weekly basis (Resort Hotels)  Third Control Point

The Income Auditor shall prepare the Journal Entry of Cash Transactions  Fourth Control Point


As in nearly all hotel departments, F&B outlets of a hotel might operate under the following systems:
I-Manual systems

II-Semi- automated systems

III-Fully automated systems


In small organizations where the manager or the owner is available in nearly all hotel operations, manual systems are preferred. For, there is no need for an investment in computers, though a lot of human errors, as far as control is concerned, might be observed. The forms that must be used in a manual system are:

  1. Captain order:

This form is a written format of the guest order. This is an internal control document prepared in three copies by the waiter/waitress. A copy is sent to kitchen for food production, a copy to service bar for the drinks to be prepared and the last copy to the cashier for opening a guest check.

On the captain order, no monetary information takes place. Rather, the order of the guest, the table no., the waiter ID, and number of guest(s) are only filled.

Captain orders help as to control the relation between the waiter, kitchen, service bar and cashier.

  1. Guest check (F&B check, "Adisyon"):

By recording F&B item prices on the captain order, the cashier prepares the guest check. Had any cancellations or additions from the initial captain order occurred, the cashier should make the necessary changes.

As far as payment is concerned, the guest might opt for:

  1. Charging to his/her room. In this case, the waiter shall insert the room number and take the guest signature on the guest check,

  2. Cash, Credit Card, Bank Check or personal check. In this case, the waiter shall get the due amount from the guest; bring the collection to the cashier, who shall prepare the necessary legal document for sales along with the various internal control vouchers needed. In manual systems, cash register machine is used for this purpose. To illustrate, the cashier rings up the sale on the cash register and gives the guest the cash register bill.

At the end of his/her shift, the cashier should take the “Z” report from the cash register, attach it to various guest checks opened, the captain orders, and the total cash received in that very shift.

Later, it is the responsibility of the Hotel Manager or Accounting Managers to verify the total shown on the cash register tape against the total cash receipts and the total developed from the serially numbered guest checks. While doing so, the unit prices recorded on the guest checks have to be also verified from the price list.


In larger organizations, maintaining internal control by observation and one to one verifications is not applicable. In cases where business owners want to benefit from computerized systems but cannot afford financially to set up a fully automated system, it is better to get use of an individual Posting Machine for the various F&B outlets' operations.

In such systems, there is no need for the verification of unit prices on the guest checks as the computer automatically posts the prices. The other advantage is, as the guest check printed from the posting machine is facing the legal requirements, there is no need to use cash register machine or to create another legal document. At the end of each shift, the cashier shall count the cash receipts and compare them with the total generated from guest checks. The accounting department does the verification.

In semi- computerized accounting systems there is no interface with the other hotel departmental systems. This is one of the biggest disadvantages of this very system since it involves extra control work for other departments and functions. For example, the Night Auditor must control and post all the data again to the Front Office system. This is time consuming and subject to numerous posting errors. In practice, this might generate significant late charge amounts, and hence might affect seriously the financial position of the hotel.

In big organizations, manual or semi-automated systems cannot be applicable because of the huge amount of the number of transactions, their control, and the large amount of money associated to them.

In fully automated systems, in order to maintain an adequate internal control and information flow, the individual computers must be electronically connected to each other. The major advantages of the system are:

  1. On-line information is available

  2. No need for re-entering data

  3. Minimum internal control requirement

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