Purpose this practice provides the requirements for safely loading and unloading materials from vehicles. Scope


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Practice 000.653.3202

Date 01Feb2010

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LOADING AND UNLOADING MATERIAL

PURPOSE


This practice provides the requirements for safely loading and unloading materials from vehicles.

SCOPE


This practice includes the following major sections:

  • General Requirements

  • Hazards

  • Job Safety Analysis

  • Mechanical Lifting Devices

  • Equipment and Vehicle Inspections

  • Communications

  • Load Composition and Characteristics

  • Shipping Agent

  • Receiving Crew

  • Vehicle and Personnel Interaction

  • Lifting Points

  • Load/Unloading Area

APPLICATION


This practice applies to work activities and employees under the control of P2S and its contractors.

DEFINITIONS


Cradles – Purpose made equipment that is used to manage loads of equipment while being transported or lifted.

Flat Rack – Purpose made unit, which is compatible with shipping containers and come in 20 feet (6.1 meters) and 40 feet (12.2 meters) configurations.

Palletized – Where materials and equipment have been stacked and restrained in pallet type sections whether tied, shrink-wrapped, etc.

Crated – Materials loaded into crates, which have tine access for forklifts.

Boxed – Equipment that has been packaged in boxes, which have tine access for forklifts.

Containerized – Material that can be transported in bulk or as mixed loads inside sea containers.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PURPOSE 1

SCOPE 1

APPLICATION 1

DEFINITIONS 1

1.0GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 3

2.0HAZARDS 3

3.0JOB SAFETY ANALYSIS 4

4.0MECHANICAL LIFTING DEVICES 4

5.0EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLE INSPECTIONS 5

6.0COMMUNICATIONS 5

7.0LOAD COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS 5

8.0SHIPPING AGENT 5

9.0RECEIVING CREW 6

10.0VEHICLE AND PERSONNEL INTERACTION 7

11.0LIFTING POINTS 7

12.0LOADING/UNLOADING AREA 7

13.0REFERENCES 8


  1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


Only trained employees will load or unload materials from trucks.

Activities, which require employees to use any form of manual handling, will be conducted in accordance with Practice 000.653.3305, Manual Handling.

Cranes and other lifting machinery/equipment will be managed in accordance with the Practices 000.502.0100, Administrative Practice for Rigging, 000.502.1000, Cranes and Rigging – Operations (Site-specific), and 000.653.3201, Cranes and Rigging – Introduction/Preuse.

Employees will be designated as machinery and equipment operators according to Practices 000.653.3200, Motorized Heavy Equipment and Light Vehicles, and 000.653.3201.

Lifting equipment will be tagged and certified as detailed in Practice 000.653.3201.

Management of traffic in/around the project work areas will be done in accordance with Practice 000.653.3211, Traffic management.
  1. HAZARDS


The various hazards to employees involved with loading and unloading materials onto vehicles for shipping include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Poor or incorrect hazard identification

  • Manual handling

  • Operational machinery

  • Operator training

  • Vehicle safety

  • Communications

  • Load composition and characteristics

  • Weather conditions

  • Vehicle and employee interaction

  • Lifting equipment

  • Equipment and vehicle inspections

  • Defective vehicles and mobile equipment

  • Designated loading and unloading area

  • Vehicle speed
  1. JOB SAFETY ANALYSIS


All employees involved with loading and unloading material and equipment for any facility will participate in and complete a Job Safety Analysis (JSA), Form 000.653.F0100. This will occur before any task commencing and will be reviewed by the respective group/crew supervisor and HSE Representative.

In order for a JSA to be completed, the following documentation will be presented by the shipping company:

  • Load composition: Describing load characteristics, individual material and equipment weights (were applicable).

  • Shipping instructions.

  • Relevant dangerous goods and hazardous material certificates. This includes the manufacturer’s material safety data sheet (MSDS) and other appropriate/associated information, in accordance with Practice 000.653.2007, Hazard Communications.

  • Rigging and lifting point certification (such as lugs and chains tagged and accompanied by certification) in accordance with Practice 000.653.3201.

After the documentation (see above) has been checked, a comprehensive JSA will be undertaken.

This JSA will, as a minimum, involve the following employees:

  • Responsible supervisor

  • Equipment/crane/forklift operator

  • Riggers and doggers (as required)

  • Vehicle/truck operator/driver

  • Any other person involved with the unloading or loading of material and equipment

Once completed and reviewed by the group/crew supervisor, the JSA will be signed by all employees and serve as the tasks work method/framework. The job steps outlined in the JSA must be complied with at all times unless additional or other hazards become evident. Should this occur, the JSA must be updated, reviewed, and resigned by all employees.

The loading and unloading of materials will not progress unless all parties are sure of the job plan and general work scope and have completed and signed the JSA.
  1. MECHANICAL LIFTING DEVICES


Where ever practicable, mechanical lifting devices should be used for all material over 40 pounds (18.1 kilograms). Where appropriate, methods such as pallets, boxes, crates, and containerization should be used. Compliance with this practice will remove or significantly reduce the potential exposure to employee when conducting unloading or loading material tasks.

Individual employees should not do repetitive, frequent, or heavy lifting. Mechanical lifting equipment will be made available for identified specific tasks as required. Mechanical lifting devices include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Trolleys

  • Hydraulic lifts

  • Forklifts

  • Cranes

  • Vehicle-mounted cranes and/or similarly mounted lifting arms
  1. EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLE INSPECTIONS


Vehicles, machinery, and equipment inspections will be conducted in accordance with Practice 000.653.3200, including the tagout of defective equipment.

However, specialist vehicles may be required to deliver various loads of unusual size and/or proportion of weight. Hence, where practicable, the intent of the vehicle inspection form is to be complied with if not the actual content. To provide continuity and consistency, vehicle, machinery, and equipment should, as a minimum, have the following inspected and tested before use:

  • Operator vehicle interface (seatbelt, seats, mirrors, etc.)

  • Operational controls (brakes, gears, steering, etc.)

  • Vehicle safety equipment (seatbelts, fire extinguisher, flashing light, indicators, etc).
  1. COMMUNICATIONS


Wherever possible, communications between parties will be either by clear, precise hand signals or two-way radio. Two-way radio communication channels during loading and unloading will be cleared as much as possible to verify that directions are not misinterpreted. This will be achieved through the restriction of two-way radio channels to designated tasks or assignment of dedicated channel.

The loading and unloading of materials is not to progress unless all parties are sure of the job plan and general work scope and have completed and signed the JSA.
  1. LOAD COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS


Where possible, loading and unloading of materials should occur at designated dispatch and receivable points. To provide consistency and continuity throughout the duration of the project, a standardized loading/shipping manifest will be used.
  1. SHIPPING AGENT


The following requirements are to be expected by all transport and shipping agents for transport of material and goods throughout all phases of the project:

  • Unit weight marked on units (individual and collective).

  • Load center of gravity to be marked on each unit.

  • Method of restraining load during transportation.

  • Decide on method of transport and unloading:

  • Flat racks (where approved lifting equipment is available)

  • Cradles (where approved lifting equipment is available)

  • Pallets

  • Crates

  • Boxes

  • Containers (where approved lifting equipment is available)

  • Strapping

  • Shrink-wrapping (boxes or pallets) making the small boxes into one unit

  • Pre-slings for loading and remain attached as part of the load. They are tied down during transport and are later used to unload, thus eliminating the need for personnel to work at height to attach or remove slings. Pre-slings should be inspected before a lift.

  • Use of specialty transport options (such as tilt tray transport and container side loader).

  • Verify that the method for unloading identified is compatible with the equipment for unloading, which is at the unloading site.
  1. RECEIVING CREW


The following requirements will be adopted by receiving crews on receipt of materials and goods throughout all phases of the project:

  • Review manifest to check on weights of material and equipment.

  • Conduct JSA and gain agreement with all members of the crew receiving the goods and responsible for unloading.

  • Verify that the method for unloading is compatible with the equipment for unloading, which is at the receivable point.

  • Conduct pre-start inspection on machinery (such as forklifts and cranes).

  • Identify and control potential exposures to falls from heights in accordance with Practice 000.653.3001, Fall Protection.

  • Attempt to remove all material to ground level before distribution (such as containers removed from transport vehicles and placed at ground level before items are removed).

  • Where necessary, conduct lift study under supervision and guidance of crane/lift supervisor.

  • To assist with the unloading and loading of materials, it is suggested that the shipping agent be contacted and enquiries made as to their equipment selection, type, and methodology for loading and unloading.
  1. VEHICLE AND PERSONNEL INTERACTION


Work on the site may have the potential to interface with the general public; extra precautions are required to restrict access into the actual work area.

This will be achieved by the use of signage and the issuing of public information bulletins to notify the public that beyond a designated location is a project work area and access is restricted to project personnel and authorized contractors only.

Where appropriate, additional fencing, gates, barriers, warning signs, and personnel will be used to control traffic flow.

Spotters and other people working in the vicinity of equipment will wear high-visibility vests or clothing and use the correct signage at all times. Communications and hand signals will also be standardized.
  1. LIFTING POINTS


Equipment or material, which have designated lifting points, must be accompanied with the correct certifications and testing documentation.

Materials with designated lifting points, which are not accompanied with the correct tags, certification, and testing documentation must not be removed using the lifting points.

The requirements for certification and testing documentation will be applied to all-purpose built lifting equipment such as flat racks, containers, cradles, and bolsters.
  1. LOADING/UNLOADING AREA


To conduct loading and unloading operations without interference from adjacent activities, mobile machinery, equipment, and employees, a designated area will be established where practical.

The designated area will be clearly marked and sign-posted as a restricted area. All employees operating within the confines of this area must wear a high-visibility vest or like clothing, which clearly delineates them from other employees.

Mobile equipment such as forklifts and lifting equipment will be designated for use within the confines of this area and, therefore, be restricted to use within this area only. This will significantly reduce the probability of unauthorized use of vehicles and mobile equipment for tasks other than loading and unloading materials and equipment.

The designated areas will as a minimum have, but are not limited to having, the following control mechanisms in place:

  • Delineated work areas – Through the use of barrier tape.

  • Uni-directional roads – Through the implementation of adequate signage and designated employee training.

  • Designated personnel – Through recruitment, selection, and training only authorized personnel will be allowed to enter the designated loading and unloading area.

  • Specific personal protective equipment (PPE) – Standard PPE requirements and in addition a specific high-visibility vest.

  • Radios – Designated radio frequency for those radios designated for use by crane crews and other personnel within the restricted area.

  • Designated equipment – This may include, forklifts, lifting equipment, and mobile anchor points (for employees rigging and working at height).

  • Semi-permanent facilities – This includes the use of scaffolding to create a number of both stationary and mobile semi-permanent loading docks, access ways, and working areas, with full handrails and anchor point system, for use with vehicles such as transports and the like.

All of the above facilities, equipment, and safe work practices form the basis of a restricted area where only authorized personnel are allowed. These personnel will be trained in the systems and administrative controls used, as well as tested for competency in the use of designated equipment such as cranes, forklifts, and EWPs.
  1. REFERENCES


Document ID

Document Title

000.502.0100

Administrative Practice for Rigging (P2S)

000.502.1000

Cranes and Rigging – Operations (Site-Specific) (P2S)

000.653.2007

Hazard Communications

000.653.3001

Fall Protection

000.653.3200

Motorized Heavy Equipment and Light Vehicles

000.653.3201

Cranes and Rigging

000.653.3211

Traffic Management

000.653.3305

Manual Handling

Forms:

000.653.F0100

Job Safety Analysis




Health, Safety, and Environmental

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