Scheduled for January 1, 2005


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Table 12. Payment Schedule for Low Household Annual VMT – 4 Drivers






Payment

Number of Persons in Household

Yearly VMT Threshold

(Miles)

$2,800

4

0

$2,800

5

0

$2,400

4

Less than 3,250

$2,400

5

Less than 3,500










$2,000

4

Less than 6,500

$2,000

5

Less than 6,700










$1,600

4

Less than 9,750

$1,600

5

Less than 10,000










$1,200

4

Less than 13,000

$1,200

5

Less than 13,250










$800

4

Less than 16,250

$800

5

Less than 16,500










$400

4

Less than 19,500

$400

5

Less than 19,750





Table 13. Payment Schedule for Low Household Annual VMT 5 Drivers






Payment

Number of Persons in Household

Yearly VMT Threshold

(Miles)

$2,800

5

0










$2,400

5

Less than 4,000










$2,000

5

Less than 8,000










$1,600

5

Less than 12,000










$1,200

5

Less than 16,000










$800

5

Less than 20,000










$400

5

Less than 24,000


Table 14. World and United States Population for 19th, 20th and 21st Century 20
Year World Population U.S. Population

1804

1 Billion

-

1900

1,650,000,000

76,094,000

1927

2 Billion

-

1950

2,521,000,000

152,271,417

1960

3 Billion

-

1974

4 Billion

-

1987

5 Billion

-

1999

6 Billion

-

2000

6,067,000,000

274,114,00021

2013

7 Billion

-

2028

8 Billion

-

2050

8,909,000,000

403,687,000

2054

9 Billion

-

2100

9,459,000,000

570,954,000


Appendix B: Transportation, Home and Recreation Energy Conservation Measures22
Energy Using Transportation Reduction Measures
1. Take vacations near home.
2. When you must drive to get necessities, plan errands to minimize driving. Plan shopping so you can get all your groceries in one week.
3. Buy a fuel-efficient car. Better yet, buy a bike – and use it regularly, or wake or take a bus when it is important that you travel longer distances.
4. Move closer in to where you normally must travel to, so you can either bike safely or walk more places more often.

5. Don't move far away from your family if you are close to them, so you don't have to fly in during holidays to see them every year. Or if you are far away from them, consider moving back to where they are.


  1. Buy liquids in condensed forms when possible. It saves room in the refrigerator, and

limits the amount of trips necessary to the grocery store.
7. Avoid purchasing products such as bottled water, beer, pop, liquor and other commodities in non-recyclable plastic containers. Not only is excess energy burned in transporting the water in those products to the grocery store, but there is also energy burned in producing the plastic containers for these products, and in transporting and disposing of the containers.
Conserving Energy in the Home: Lighting and Windows



  1. Install screw-in fluorescent bulbs (compact fluorescent), where practical.

  2. Replace two 60-watt incandescent bulbs with one 100-watt bulb (same amount of light).

  3. Clean light fixtures (dirt reduces light output).

  4. Turn off lights in parts of the house not in use.

  5. Limit number, number of days used, and duration of operation of holiday/festival lights.

  6. Long-life incandescence is less efficient than standard incandescence.

  7. Use “task lights” to provide light where you need it; reduce background light levels.

  8. Chose light colored rooms and ceilings over dark colored ones; white ceilings reflect light back into room.

  9. Use natural daylighting; one 3’ by 5 ‘ window can let in more light than 100 standard 60-what bulbs.

  10. Organize rooms for maximum use of daylighting to reduce need for artificial lighting.

  11. Ways to improve the energy saving potential of older windows include caulking, weather-stripping, replacing sashes and re-glazing.

  12. Increasing the number of “glazings” (layers of glass) increases the energy saving potential.

  13. Adding plastic film to the outside of windows, or insulated window coverings to the inside of windows, increase the energy saving potential.

  14. New windows should have at least an R-3 insulating value.

  15. Awnings, overhangs and sunscreens reduce summer heat gain through windows by up to 90 percent, while still letting in light. Drapes left open around windows where the sun shines into homes (south and west-facing side of house) can make air conditioners work 2 to 3 times harder.

  16. Shut air conditioning vents and close doors in areas not in use, or used infrequently.

  17. Change air conditioner and furnace filters when dirty.

  18. Turn off lights when not needed for considerable length of time (longer period okay for florescent lights, but turn off overnight).


Conserving Energy in the Home: Remodeling and Building Decisions


  1. Make sure there is sufficient levels of insulation: at least R-44 in roof or attic; R-23 in outside facing walls; R-19 in box sill; and R-10 around foundation.

  2. Install a continuous air infiltration barrier.

  3. Design rooms to take advantage of daylighting.

  4. Install energy efficient fluorescent light fixtures, where possible.

  5. Build vestibules for outside doors.

  6. Install high efficiency condensing furnace with outside combustion air and exhaust.

  7. Select an insulated outside door of R-5 or greater.

  8. Choose low-E glass for the windows.

  9. When landscaping, consider planting trees to shade house in summer, and to serve as

windbreaks (especially north side of house) in winter. [Trees also sequester carbon dioxide, a “greenhouse gas”, from of the Earth’s atmosphere.]

10. Choose an appropriately sized home for the number of persons who will live in the

home 12 months out of the year. Avoid building and buying a home much larger than needed for the residents to live comfortably.

  1. Avoid building and buying a home on a much larger sized lot than is needed by the persons who plan to live in the home. More energy will be required to maintain the property (cut lawn, bushes, etc.); and the placement of numerous homes on large lots ultimately contributes to unnecessary and energy inefficient “sprawling out” of neighborhoods, cities and villages.


Conserving Energy in the Home: Appliances and Heating/Air Conditioning


  1. When (or before) hot water heater needs replacing, install a natural gas water heater with an energy factor of greater than 0.58.

  2. When (or before) furnace needs replacing, install high efficiency condensing furnace with outside combustion air and exhaust.

  3. When (or before) appliances need replacing, purchase (or ask landlord to purchase) high efficiency appliances.

  4. When (or before) air conditioner needs replacing, install a high efficiency air conditioner (if air conditioning considered necessary).

  5. When washing clothes, wash dark and colored clothes in cold water (to avoid using energy for heating the water).

  6. When drying clothes, line dry them to avoid using the energy in drying them in the dryer.

  7. When conditioning the air, use portable, ceiling and/or whole house attic fans for cooling over air conditioning, whenever possible. Less electricity is used in operating fans.

  8. Insulate water heater, insulate pipes, install low-flow shower head, set water heater temperature at 120 degrees F.

  9. In summer, do not run the air conditioner when no one is at home, and when someone is home, run the air conditioner only when necessary and turn it off completely on cooler nights.

  10. In winter: keep the thermostat below 60 degrees F. when you are no one is home, and turn it down for nighttime hours. Make sure all the windows and doors are sealed, and cover the air conditioner with plastic or remove it from the window completely. Wear sweaters to allow for lower comfortable temperature settings during the daytime hours.


Participate Only in Low-Energy Consuming Recreational Activities
1. Choose recreational activities that do not rely heavily on burning of fossil fuels or electricity consumption. If one want to be truly energy wise and slow global warming for everyone, the following heavily energy depended recreational activities should be avoided completely: snowmobiling (for recreation purposes); all terrain vehicle riding; motor boating; jet skiing; motorcycle riding; recreational flying; going on heavily energy using carnival rides.
2. Avoid participation in activities or sports that require lots of travel. If travel is required, it is usually more efficient to travel by bus or train, then to fly or take personal transportation. If personal transportation is required, coordinate rides to insure the minimum number of vehicles are taken to any recreational event.


  1. Do not cater to events or festivities that burn large amount of energy for primarily

enjoyment viewing. Examples of these activities include auto racing, motorcycle racing, boat racing, airplane shows, tractor pulls and fireworks displays.

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