Z80 @4 mhz • controls psg (Programmable Sound Generator) & fm chips • 8 kbytes of dedicated Sound Ram video




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July 26, 2019 Sega Technical Overview 1.00 Page


GENESIS Technical Overview
CONFIDENTIAL

PROPERTY OF SEGA
Look forward to more Tech notes:
Super Nintendo

Jaguar
Edited by Nemesis – corrupted images repaired

GENESIS:
68000 @8 MHz

• main CPU

• 1 MByte (8 Mbit) ROM Area

• 64 KByte RAM Area
VDP (Video Display Processor)

• dedicated video display processor

- controls playfield & sprites

- capable of DMA

- Horizontal & Vertical interrupts

• 64 KBytes of dedicated VRAM (Video Ram)

• 64 x 9-bits of CRAM (Color RAM)
Z80 @4 MHz

• controls PSG (Programmable Sound Generator) & FM Chips

• 8 KBytes of dedicated Sound Ram
VIDEO:
• NOTE: Playfield and Sprites are character-based
• Display Area (visual)
- 40 chars wide x 28 chars high

• each char is 8 x 8 pixels

• pixel resolution = 320 x 224
- 3 Planes

• 2 scrolling playfields

• 1 sprite plane

• definable priorities between planes
- Playfields:

• 6 different sizes

• 1 playfield can have a "fixed" window

• playfield map

- each char position takes 2 Bytes, that includes:

• char name (10 bits); points to char definition

• horizontal flip

• vertical flip

• color palette (2 bits); index into CRAM

• priority

• scrolling:

- 1 pixel scrolling resolution

- horizontal:

• whole playfield as unit

• each character line

• each scan line

- vertical:

• whole playfield as unit

• 2 char wide columns
- Sprites:

• 1 x 1 char up to 4 x 4 chars

• up to 80 sprites can be defined

• up to 20 sprites displayed on a scan line

• sprite priorities
- Character Definitions

• 4 bits/pixel; points to color register

• 4 bytes/scanline of char

• 32 bytes for complete char definition

• playfield & sprite chars are the same!

COLOR:
- Uses CRAM (part of the VDP)

• 64 9-bit wide color registers

- 64 colors out of 512 possible colors

• 3 bits of Red

• 3 bits of Green

• 3 bits of Blue

• 4 palettes of 16 colors

- 0th color (of each palette) is always transparent

OTHER:
- DMA

• removes the 68000 from the BUS

• can move 205 Bytes/scanline during VBLANK

- there are 36 scanlines during VBLANK

- DMA can move 7380 Bytes during VBLANK
- Horizontal & Vertical interrupts

SOUND:
- Z80 controls:

• PSG (TI 76489 chip)

• FM chip (Yamaha YM 2612)

- 6-channel stereo

• Z80 can access ROM data

• 8 KBytes RAM

HARDWARE:
- 2 controllers

• joypad

• 3 buttons

• Start button

- 1 external port

- 2 video-outs (RF & RGB)

- audio jack (stereo)

- volume control (for audio jack)

******* INDEX *******
1. MEMORY MAP 1

§ 1 MEGA DRIVE 16BIT MODE 1
_ 68000 MEMORY MAP 1

_ Z80 MEMORY MAP 2

_ 68000 ACCESS TO Z80 MEMORY 2

_ I/O AREA 3

_ CONTROL AREA 3

_ VDP AREA 4
2. VDP 315-5313 5

(Video Display Processor)
_ TERMINOLOGY 6
§ 1 DISPLAY SPECIFICATION 7
§ 2 VDP STRUCTURE 9

_ CTRL 9

_ VRAM 9

_ CRAM 9

_ VSRAM 9

_ DMA 9
§ 3 INTERRUPTS 10

_ VERTICAL INTERRUPT 10

_ HORIZONTAL INTERRUPT 10

_ EXTERNAL INTERRUPT 11
§ 4 VDP INTERFACE 12

_ $C00000 (DATA CHANNEL) 13

_ $C00004 (CONTROL CHANNEL) 13

_ $C00008 (HV COUNTER) 15
§ 5 VDP REGISTER 15

Reg. # 0 - Reg. # 3 16

Reg. # 4 - Reg. #10 17

Reg. #11 - Reg. #14 18

Reg. #15 - Reg. #18 19

Reg. #19 - Reg. #23 20
§ 6 ACCESS VDP RAM 21

_ ADDRESS SETTING 21

_ VRAM ACCESS 22

_ CRAM ACCESS 26

_ VSRAM ACCESS 27

_ ACCESS TIMING 28

_ HV COUNTER 29

******* INDEX *******

§ 7 DMA 30

_ MEMORY TO VRAM 30

_ VRAM FILL 32

_ VRAM COPY 36

_ DMA ABILITY 38
§ 8 SCROLL 39

_ SCREEN SIZE 40

_ HORIZONTAL SCROLL 41

_ YERTICAL SCROLL 43

_ SCROLL PATTERN 45

_ PATTERN NAME 46
§ 9 WINDOW 48

_ POSITION 49

_ PRIORITY 52

_ PATTERN NAME 52
§ 10 SPRIT_E 54

_ POSITION 54

_ ATTRIBUTE 56

_ SIZE 57

_ ABILITY 57

_ PRIORITY (SPRITES) 58

_ PATTERN GENERATER 60
§ 11 PRIORITY 61
§ 12 COLOR PALETTE 67
§ 13 INTERLACE MODE 69
3. 8/16 BIT COMPATIBILITY 71
_ MARK III (MS - JAPAN) 71

_ MS 71

_ RAM CARD 71
4. I/O 72
§ 1 VERSION NO. 72
§ 2 I/O 72
§ 3 MEMORY MODE 76
§ 4 Z80 CONTROLS 76

_ Z80 BUSREQ 76

_ Z80 RESET 76
§ 5 Z80 AREA 77

_ SOUND RAM 77

_ SOUND CHIP 77

_ BANK REGISTER 77
5. VRAM MAPPING 79

6. APPEND XX

1. MEMORY MAP
§ 1 MEGA DRIVE 16 BIT MODE (AS DISTINCT FROM

MASTER SYSTEM COMPATIBILITY MODE)
_ 68K MEMORY MAP _

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