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Azarov, Oleg
Railroad camps of the NKVD (MVD) in the Komi Republic
(1938 -1959 years).
the Dissertation
Syktyvkar, Komi Republic - 2005
Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation Federal Agency for Education of Syktyvkar State University
A manuscript UDC 947 (47): 34

Specialty 07.00.02 - History
Work done at the Department of Native History of Syktyvkar State University.
Supervisor: Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Roshchevskaya Larisa
The official opponents Doctor of History Stallions Igor Lyubomirovich
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Professor Anatoly Nenakhov
Lead organization: Ukhta State Technical University, Department of History and Culture

Protection on December 8, 2005 at 10:00. at a meeting of the Dissertation Council to 212.257.01 for award of the degree of candidate of historical sciences, specialty 07.00.02 - "National History" in Syktyvkar State University at the address: 167001, Republic of Komi, Syktyvkar, ul. Kataev, 9, Rm. 307.
With the thesis can be found in the Research Library of Syktyvkar State University.

Abstract sent "" 2005
Scientific Secretary of the Dissertation Council
Ph.D. in History of PP cats
General characteristics of
Background. Repressive and punitive apparatus of the Soviet state, including forced labor camps of the NKVD (MVD) of the USSR, was one of the instruments of social and economic modernization in the 1930s. In addition to the implementation of repressive functions to forced labor camps of the NKVD (MVD) of the USSR were assigned production and economic functions that are not typical of the classic prison system. By 1940, the economy of the camp was formed, which includes large areas and 20 economic sectors, including transport construction. Since the beginning of 1930. all the railways of the countries made prisoners. Resource-rich eastern and northern regions of the country in which there were no industry and labor are absorbed mostly prisoners in labor camps of the NKVD (MVD). In these areas have developed into large camp-industrial complexes.
In 1930 - 1950 years. in the Komi Republic have developed mining, oil and gas, timber, railroad camp-industrial complexes. The system of forced labor camps of the NKVD (MVD) Komi ASSR was typical, indicative for the Soviet camp system. The region has almost no large industrial production, labor, why industrialization, including the construction of the North-Pechora Railway, mainly conducted by the camp. However the recognition of this historical phenomenon hampered by the lack of studies on the role of labor camps of the NKVD (MVD) in the socio-economic development of the Komi Republic.

Railroad camp-industrial complex had a special place among the many camps of the Gulag in the Komi Republic. Development of transport and communications, including the North-Pechora Railway - basic transport in the Pechora coal basin and the Komi Republic, was essential to the industrial development of the European North-East. In the production of the railway camps most clearly manifested accelerated construction techniques specific to the industrialization of the 1930s.
Degree of scrutiny. For Soviet historiography repressive policies and the prison system was characterized by a total indoctrination. Literature on the subject tried to shape public opinion, including the foreign, the perception of forced labor camps of the NKVD (MVD) as a humane system of re-education "reforging" enemies of the people. After the XX Congress of the CPSU were first journalistic and artistic works, which has been described as the Gulag system of extra-economic coercion and enslavement of the individual (Alexander Solzhenitsyn, A. swear). In the historiography of the economy and industry of the USSR forced labor camps of the NKVD (MVD) and the prisoners were not mentioned (PI Liashenko).

Soviet prison system more actively studied abroad. In foreign historiography prevailed comprehensive study of the history of the Gulag camps, based on the memoirs of former prisoners (BA Yakovlev, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, J. Rossi, R. Conquest). Despite the limited and specific source basis of these studies, they described in detail the system of forced labor camps of the NKVD (MVD), including in the Komi Republic. In general, public opinion and foreign historians now realizes the Gulag as "a concentration camp for political prisoners, who became a symbol of Soviet tyranny reigning in the" [1].
In the mid-1980s - early 1990s. in our country has increased public interest in the country's history, especially the history of repressive policies and the prison system. In a historical and critical journalism has established a negative approach to the history of the Soviet period estimates. There are favorable conditions for the development of history, one of its priorities was the revision of the official-conservative conception of Soviet history and the restoration of historical truth. Researchers have begun to study the role of the Gulag, and came to the conclusion that, in the framework of the modernization of the 1930s. Gulag was a method of solving certain problems of domestic and foreign policy of the Soviet state (LA Gordon, EV Bedbugs, PA Medvedev, G. Smith).

Attracted the attention of historians issues of greatest public interest, including the size and socio-demographic characteristics of the camp (VN Zemskov[2]), the use of forced labor and the degree of effectiveness of the camp economy (OV Khlevniuk, L. Coward, SG Ebedzhans, M.YA important) [3] of the camp as a particular social group (VA Kozlov, AB Suslov). Reference "The system of forced labor camps in the Soviet Union. 1923-1960 years. "Became the first native description of the Soviet prison system, drawn up on the basis of previously closed archives istochnikov [4].
At the regional level, comprehensive studies have been published several camps of the NKVD (MVD) (VA Berdinskikh, LI Gvozdkova, OP Elantseva, AC Pimanov, A. Shirokov) [5].
Thus, in modern historiography is extensive study of a number of common problems in the history of the Gulag, which is allowed to generate awareness of the Gulag, as one of the essential characteristics of the totalitarian regime of the Soviet type, specific methods of economic management and resolution of problems of internal policy.
For regional historiography repressive policies of the 1930s and mid-1980s. was characterized by the main trends and approaches inherent in the whole of Soviet historical science. The first descriptions of the camps in the Komi region the Ukrainian Soviet writer concluded Ukhto Pechora camp O.Vishnya (PM Gubenko) and V. Kantorovich. Until the end of 1980. at the regional level, the study of the history of the repressive policy was conducted. Researchers have focused on the study of the history of the economy, various industries, the largest industrial enterprises Komi. In general works and the works of researchers were reflected various aspects of history of industrial development of the European North-East and the industrialization of the Komi ASSR[6].

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Notes:

[1] Verga N.GULAG/50/50 Dictionary of new political thinking - M., 1989-C. 404.
[2] In H Zemskov Prisoners special settlers, deportees, exiles and deportees (statistical-geograficheskny aspect) / / History of the USSR in 1991. - № 5. - P.151 -156, aka Prisoners in 1930, the socio-demographic problems / / National History. 1997. - № 64. - C. 54-79.
[3] Khlevniuk OV Forced labor in the economy of the Soviet Union 1929 - 1941 / / Free Thought. 1992. - № 13. - P.73 - 83; Coward LS Introduction to the camp of economy / / Economic and commercial production. 1990. - № 5. - P.146 -155.; Ebedzhans SG, it is important to MJ Production phenomenon gulag / / Questions of history. 1994. - № 6. - P.188-190.
[4] The system of forced labor camps in the Soviet Union. 1925-1960. - M., 1998.
[5] Berlin VA Vyatlag history of the formation and functioning of the 1930 - 1960 years. - Kirov, 1998, he, the story of one camp (Vyatlag) - M, 2001, AS Pimanov history of railway construction "Chum - Salekhard-Igarka" (1947-1955.). - Tyumen, 1998.
[6] Essays on the History of the Komi Republic in 2 t T 2. - Syktyvkar, 1962, Studies in the History of Komi party organization - Syktyvkar, 1964, History of Komi from ancient times to the present day - Syktyvkar, 1978, Studies in the History of Komi regional organization of the Communist Party. - Syktyvkar, 1987.

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YL Clerks devoted his study of the history of the construction of the North-Pechora railway focused on railway construction, viewing it in context of the fuel and energy base in the European Severe [7]. However, the regional historiography not considered methods of industrialization of the Republic, did not mention the Gulag camps and prisoners.
In 1990 - the beginning of the 2000s. Historians of become actively engaged in the study of repressive policies and the Gulag camps in the Komi Republic. Since 1998, the national program is to perpetuate the memory of the victims of political repression, "Repentance", which is published in the martyrology of victims of political repressions "Repentance" (bars 1-7) [8]. First general outline of the history of the camps of the NKVD (MVD) in the region were the articles HA Morozov and MB Rogacheva [9]. In the regional historiography raised and highlighted a number of problems in the history of the repressive policy. H.A. Morozov, first made a general description of the prison system in the Komi ASSR [10]. MB Rogachev investigated deportation of Polish citizens in the Komi Republic, the construction of the railway Pinyug prisoners - Ust-Sysolsk, prisoners in a revolt. Ust-Usa [11]. LA Maximova is investigating the role of the Gulag camps in the industrial development of the region and their impact on the environment and ecology of the North. The authors concluded that the Gulag was special, but inefficient form of economic development Severa [12] manual feed. LP Roshchevskaya addressed the issue of the influence of the Gulag for education, health, culture, social life, and concluded that the camps of the NKVD (MVD) is the city main factors and socio-cultural point of the territorii [13]. TM Cornet, examining the role of prisoners in the formation of permanent cadres of the working class Komi, believes that the system of repression was the main way to solve the problem of providing new industries working siloy [14].

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Notes:

[7] Dyakov Yu L Construction and operation of the North Pechorsyuoy railway during World War II / / History of the USSR in 1969 № 5 - C 114 - 124, also known as the North Building-Pechora Railway before the war (1937 -1941 years) / / Questions of history working class Komi - Syktyvkar, 1970 from 86 - 96, also known as North coal and metallurgical base of the origin and development - M, 1973.
[8] Repentance: MartirologT1-7 in eight parts. - Syktyvkar, 1998 - 2005.
[9] NA Morozov Gulag in the Komi region II historian look sad marina - Syktyvkar, 1991 - From 5-17; H.A. Morozov, Mikhail Rogachev Gulag in the Komi Republic (20-50s) / / National History 1995. - № 2. - S. 182-187.
[10] Morozov NA Gulag in Komi region (1929 -1956). - Syktyvkar, 1997, also known as Special Camps of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs in the Komi Republic (1948 - 1954).. - Syktyvkar, 1998.
[11] Rogachev MB Usinskaya tragedy / / Springs Parma Vol. IV-Syktyvkar, 1996. - From 210-221, he, and the story USEVLON "dead road" / / Repentance. Martyrology T. 3 - Syktyvkar, 2000. - S. 345-374, he, Polish tragedy facts and documents / Repentance: Martyrology. T 5. - Syktyvkar, 2002. - C 15-463.
[12] Maksimov LA Camp and industrial development of the North to the example of the Republic of Komi / / Bulletin SSU Ser 8 Vol. 2 - Syktyvkar, 1997 - From 70 - 79, she's Gulag and for nature / / Finno-Ugric world of nature and the state of the regional strategy for protection of the environment Proceedings of the International Conference. - Syktyvkar, 2000 - 176 -182.
[13] Roshchevskaya LP Radium industry in the USSR in the Great Patriotic War (on the materials of the village. Ukhta Water District Komi ASSR) / / Komi Republic in the Great Patriotic War - Syktyvkar, 2004. - From 130-142.
[14] Horunjaya T.M. Repressive policies and features folding labor in the Komi Autonomous Region in the years 1920 -1940 / / Bulletin SSU Ser 8. No. 1.1995. - From 13 -18; aka, the Gulag and the formation of the fuel and energy complex in the Komi Autonomous in 1920-1930. / / Spiritual culture issues and trends, a 2 × 2 hrs. - Syktyvkar, 1994. - C 69-70.

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AN Kustyshev studied the problem of forced labor in the development of natural mineral resources for example Ukhto-Izhma lagerya [15]. In the regional historiography were first comprehensive studies of individual camps. AN Kaneva gathered and tried to summarize a large amount of factual material about Ukhto-Pechora and Ukhto-Izhemsky lageryah [16]. Applicant for the first time in regional historiography were begun railroad camp-industrial complex, which led to the conclusion that the construction of railways in the Komi Republic in 1930 - 1940 years. carried out by the camp and railway camps were specific penal-industrial organizatsiey [17].

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Notes:

[15] And H Kustyshev Skilled labor in Uhtpechlage / / Actual problems of local history of the Komi Republic - Syktyvkar, 1997-C 106 -109; he, Forced labor in Ukhto-Izhemsky camp NKVD - MVD USSR during the development of mineral resources in the Komi ASSR 1938-1955 gg. - Syktyvkar, 2000.
[16] AN Kanev Uhtpechlag 1929 - 1938 / / Links: Historical Almanac Issue 1. - M., 1991. - On the 331-334, she, Lagposelenie Chibyu / / Springs Parma Vol IV. - Syktyvkar, 1996. - From 183-187.
[17] Azarov OI Concentration Camp "Cedar Shore" in 1930 - the beginning of the 1950s, H Problems repressive policies in the European North of Russia (1917-1956 biennium). Abstracts of Papers. - Syktyvkar, 1993 - C 3-6; aka Oleg Azarov, présentation et traduction par Natacha Laurent Kedrovyi God: la vie quotidienne dans un camp du Goulag à l'époque Stalinienne / / VINGTIEME SIECLE REVUE D'HISTOIRE. 1994. - № 43 - From 69 - 88 [Azarov OI Cedar Shore camp gulag during Stalin / / XX century news stories Journal of the Association of Political Science, 1994 № 43. - S. 69-88], it is, Pechora, in July 1941 (from the history of the construction of the North-Pechorsioy line) / / Springs Parma. No. IV - Syktyvkar, 1996. - From 187 - 193; he, on the tundra, rail / / Repentance Martyrology T 2 - Syktyvkar, 1999 - C 130 - 219, also known as The Story of a camp / / Repentance: Martyrology T 3. - Syktyvkar, 2000-S 374-451.

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Thus, in the middle of 1980 - early 2000. at the regional level was the scientific study of a number of problems in the history of the repressive policies and the prison system in the Komi Republic. However, the railway camp-industrial complex has not yet been the subject of a separate historical research.

Source base of the study.

On the topic of research has varied range of historical sources of varying degrees of reliability, objectivity and completeness. For sources of the Soviet period is characterized by ideological bias, agitation and propaganda cliches and myths. Since the mid-1980s. opened access to state and departmental archives, began the publication of documents on the history of the Soviet repressive policy and prison sistemy [18]. At the same time, the archives of the railroad camps of the NKVD (MVD) in the Komi ASSR partially remain inaccessible to researchers, and partly destroyed.

The study materials were used seven major foundations GU RK "The National Archives of the Republic of Komi", including the Office of the Political Fund Pechora ITL Soviet Interior Ministry, which has special significance for the study. The sources from which we have investigated can be divided into the following groups. Legislative and regulatory acts of state bodies of power and administration of the USSR is the legal foundation of the Soviet state, to regulate the activities of state and public organizations, reflecting the decision of the party-state leadership strany [19].

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Notes:

[18] General Directorate of Camps 1918 - 1960. - M, 2000 Economy of the Gulag and its role in the development of the country in 1930, the egg, M, 1998, the Komi Republic in the Great Patriotic War 1941 -1945: Sat. documents and materials - Syktyvkar, 2004; Gulag in Karelia, 1930 - 1941: Sat. documents and materials - Petrozavodsk, 1992.
[19] sets of legal acts and other documents adopted by the legislature of the Republic of Komi T 1-5 - Syktyvkar, 1998 - 2003, Soviets of Komi Collection of Documents 1917 - 1985, Syktyvkar, 1988 Oil and Gas of the Komi Republic. Sat documents and materials - Syktyvkar, 1989.

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In policy documents of the CPSU (b), including the North edge and the Komi regional party organizations, reflected almost all the fundamental issues of economic development, social and political relations, formulated the concept of forced industrialization and industrial development program in remote regions of the country and the development of rail transport.
Most valuable to the research is the record keeping documentation of the NKVD (MVD) of the USSR. This group includes: organizational documents, which determines the order, tasks, forms and methods of operation, organizational structure, responsibilities of the principal management of the camp, the Main Administration of railway construction camps, administrative documentation reflecting the education, deployment, production activities, and the subordination of the camps as control (accounting) documentation, reporting, including statistics, documentation.
Documentation of the political departments, the Railway camps is a form of official documentation and is crucial for the study, since it reflects the comprehensive role and significance of the party structures in the work camps.
Sources of personal origin include personal and personal affairs of members of the CPSU (b) - Head of the political departments and camps, name lists of persons rehabilitated in the Komi Republic, including prisoners railroad camps, which can detect the socio-demographic characteristics of the officers of the railroad camps in the Komi ASSR.

Memoirs of participants and witnesses of the historic events 1930 - 1950's. are specific historical source. On the one hand, it is valuable evidence of parties and witnesses, which contain a lot of interesting information about the camps, prisoners participating in the construction of the railway, their lives and way of life. On the other hand, the reliability depends on the memoirs of the social and legal status of the author, time of writing memoirs. For the memoirs as a whole provide a subjective emotional relation to historical reality. Inside the memoir of sources can be distinguished memoirs of former prisoners railroad camps in the Komi ASSR [20]; memoirs civilian employees Pechorzheldorlaga; memoir of the NKVD (MVD) of the USSR, the NKVD (MVD) of the Komi ASSR and Pechorzheldorlaga; memoirs of Party and government leaders of Komi ASSR21.

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Notes:

[20] Antonov AV Beria. - Krasnodar, 1993, he, Portrait of a Tyrant. -M., 1994, Volkov O. Dive into the darkness. From the experience. - Moscow, 1989; Voitolovsky AL In the footsteps of my generation. - Syktyvkar, 1991; Petkevich TV Life - bootee unpaired. - M., 2004; Cockroaches FG Without guilt over the precipice. - Syktyvkar, 1992; Shtilmark RA Fallen angels. - Dushanbe, 1992, sad marina. - Syktyvkar, 1991.
21 Panev VV Milestones on the way memories. - Syktyvkar, 2000.

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Periodicals as the main means of the party-state propaganda is a synthetic historical sources, which include the most diverse in genre, origin, content information. Materials used in the study of national, metropolitan and regional newspapers, as well as large-circulation periodicals closed railway camps: "In the North-Pechora Highway" (SevZhelDorLag) and "For Arctic Highway" (Pechorzheldorlag).
Some significance for the study has complex sources in the camp to a typical single point Inta camps of the NKVD (MVD) in the village. Cedar Shore Kozhvinskogo area Komi. The documents were discovered in the summer of 1989 an expedition Pechora "Memorial", with the participation of the applicant and submitted to the collection of documents Pechora City Historical Museum. The complex, which includes almost all kinds of sources, allows us to investigate aspects of the railway camps, which are not reconstructed from other sources.
Thus, the subject of the research there is a high source base, which is based on archival documents of the political departments of the railway camps in the Komi Republic of Komi Regional Committee of the CPSU (b). The overwhelming majority of the sources used in the study, for the first time introduced into scientific circulation.
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