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Other Books by the same Author :

1. Comparative Politics

2. Indian Government and Politics

3. Reflections on Indian Politics

4. Indian Politics

5. Naxalite Politics in India

6. Major Modern Political Systems

(U.K, USA, USSR, China, Australia, Switzerland, France

and Japan)

7. Political Thought—Ancient and Medieval

8. Political Thought—Modern

9. International Relations and Politics

(Diplomatic History between Two World Wars)

10. International Relations and Politics

(Theoretical Perspective)

11. Foundations of Political Science

12. Indian Constitution and Administration

(Hindi)

1. Tulnatmak Rajniti

2. Bharatiya Rajniti

3. Bharatiya Shasan aur Rajniti

4. Rajya Vigyan Ke Adhar

5. Bharatiya Samvidhan aur Prashasan

(Edited Books)

1. Indian Freedom Movement and Thought, 1919-29 by Dr Lai

Bahadur

2. Indian Freedom Movement and Thought, 1930-47 by Dr

R.C. Gupta

3. Introduction to International Relations by Pierre-Marie

Martin

CONTEMPORARY
POLITICAL THEORY

(New Dimensions, Basic Concepts and

Major Trends)

J.C. JOHARI

M.A., LLB., Ph.D.

STERLING PUBLISHERS PRIVATE LIMITED

vi

CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL THEORY

bumps'. The situation has been looked at with ample apprehension

so much so that while some like Alfred Cobban have expressed their

concern over its 'decline' and others like T.L. Thorson have gone to

the extent of wailing over its 'demise', still others like Dante Germino

have sought to emphasise its 'resurgence' or 'revival'.
The subject of the nature and scope of political theory in the

present times has assumed a significance of its own. In view of the

pervasiveness of the contemporary crisis, the notion of 'politics' and

the understanding of 'political theory' have shown due response to

the problems and challenges posed by socio-economic developments

all over the world as well as by more subtle intellectual trends

seemingly unrelated to the discipline of Political Science as cus-

tomarily defined. The result is that contemporary political theory

looks like hovering between the poles of'post-liberalism' and 'scienti-

fic socialism' that has made its task, in the words of C.B. Macpher-

son, all the more 'deceptive', or as Fred D. Dallmyr says, it has put

it at the 'crossroads'.
Contemporary political theory is both empirical and normative,

both liberal and Marxist, both Western and non-Western irrespec-

tive of the fact that the former dimension outweighs the latter. In

other words, it is both value-laden and value-free; it is both 'utopian'

and 'scientific'. Its area of concern ranges from the 'moral evalua-

tion of political power' as commended by Allen Gewirth to a 'mad

craze for scientism' as decried by David Easton.

In this humble work an attempt has been made to keep all

this in view while discussing certain important 'basic concepts' and

'major trends'. The readers may feel and then complain that some

important topics are missing in this volume. I hope to include such

topics in the next edition in the light of critical comments coming

from them. I, however, hope that they will find this study worth-

while and thereby make my labours suitably rewarded.

I shall like to record my thanks to Prof. Frank Thakurdas

whose inspiring guidance has always been a source of encourage-

ment to me. I am also beholden to my Publishers who managed to

bring this book out in a record time for the benefit of students offer-

ing this paper'at the degree and post-graduate levels. I lack words to

express my gratitude to my wife (Saroj Rani) who has throughout been

helpful to me in the pursuit of my advanced studies without ever

grudging for the loss of material comforts of life. I shall feel obliged

to those who apprise me of their critical comments for my future

guidance.
— J.C. JOHARI

Saroj Bhawan,

II A/112, Nehru Nagar,

Ghaziabad (U.P.)

Phone : 849459

Contents

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION . v

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION v-vi

PART I : THE SETTING
1 POLITICAL THEORY 3

Meaning, Nature Characteristics and Varieties of

Political Theory

Essence of Politics : Expanding Horizons from 'Polis'

to 'Power' and 'Activity'

Political Theory distinguished from Political Thought,

Political Philosophy, Political Ideology, Political

Inquiry and Political Analysis

Importance of the Classics of Political Theory

Uses of Political Theory

Concluding observations
2. FORMS, TRADITIONS AND PROBLEMS OF POLITICAL

THEORY 41

Classical Political Theory : Alignment of Politics with

Ethics and Philosophy and Search for a Perfect

Political Order

Modern Political Theory : Dominance of Empiricism :

In Quest of a Science of Politics

Political Theory and Political Reality : Juxtaposition

of Ideas and Actions

Issue of Values and Facts : Normative, Empirical and

Trans-Empirical Theory

Different Traditions and the Problem of Interpretation

in Political Theory

Problem of Critical Appraisal in Political Theory

Concluding Observations
3. STATE OF THE DISCIPLINE 78

Birth of New Political Science : Increasing Trend

Towards Empirical Political Theory

From Empiricism to Neo-Empiricism : Reconstruction

of Political Theory after II Woild War

Kuhn's Paradigms : Process of Advancement of Politi-

cal Theory

viii

CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL THEORY

Decline of Political Theory : Arguments of Easton and

Cobban

Resurgence of Political Theory : Arguments of Berlin,

Blondel and Strauss

Concluding Observations
4. APPROACHES AND METHODS 113

Meaning and Nature of Approaches and Methods :

Similarity and Distinction with Certain Related Themes

Major Traditional Approaches and Methods

Philosophical Approach

Historical Approach

Legal Approach

Institutional Approach

Modern Approaches and Methods

Sociological Approach

Psychological Approach

Economic Approach

Behavioural Approach

Marxist Approach

Concluding Observations
5. SCIENCE AND POLITICAL THEORY 14?

Scientific Method : Meaning and Assumptions

Components of Scientific Method : The Case of

Natural versus Social Sciences

Empiricism and Scientific Method in Political Theory

Positivism and Neo-Postivism : Scientific Trends in

Philosophy, Law, History and Politics

Marxism and the Case of Scientific Political Theory

Scientific Political Theory

Dichotomy of Fact and Value : Place of Scientific

Value Relativism

ConcludingO bservations

PART II : BASIC CONCEPTS
6. LAW 195

Law : Meaning and Sources

Natural Theory of Law : Law as a Dictate of Right

Reason of Universal and Eternal Application

Analytical Theory of Law : Law as the Command of

the Sovereign

Historical Theory : Law as a Result of Social Develop-

ment.

Sociological Theory : Sanction of Law in the Needs of

the Community

CONTENTS iX
Marxian Theory : Law as an Instrument of Class

Exploitation and Oppression

Problem of Legal ObligatHjn^fKelsen's Theory of Pure

Law

Specific Kinds of Law

Law and Scientific Value Relativism : Empirical Deter-

mination of Legal Positivism

Law and Liberty : Problem of Proper Reconciliation

Law and Morality : A Delicate Problem of Proper

, Relationship

Critical Appreciation
7. RIGHTS 226

Rights : Real Meaning and Nature

Natural Theory : 'A Rhetorical Nonsense upon Stilts.'

Legal Theory : Account of Rights in Terms of the

Power of the State

Idealistic Theory : Emphasis on the External Condi-

tions as Essential to Man's Moral Development

Historical Theory : Creation of Rights by Prescription

Social Welfare Theory : Emphasis on Rights as Con-

ditions of Social Expediency

Specific Kinds of Rights

Realisation of Rights : Provision of Special Safeguards

Critical Appreciation
8. LIBERTY 252

Liberty : Real Meaning and Nature

Negative versus Positive Concepts : Absence of Res-

traints versus Burden of Constraints

Berlin's Rejoinder : Refutation of the Case of Negative

versus Positive Liberty

Specific Kinds of Liberty

Liberal versus Marxist Notions of Liberty : Controversy

on the Nature and Scope of Liberty

Defence of Particular Freedoms : Essential Safeguards

against the Abuse of Power

Libertarianism : Empirical Determination of Liberty

and Scientific Value Relativism

Liberty and Authority: Problem of Proper Reconciliation

Critical Appreciation
9. EQUALITY 289

Equality : Real Meaning and Nature

Egalitarianism : Justification of Equality in the Midst

of Inequality

X

CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL THEORY

Specific Kinds of Equality

Ideal of Equality : Liberal versus Marxist views

Egalitarianism and Scientific Value Relativism :

Empirical Determination of Equality

Equality and Liberty : Problem of Reconciliation

Critical Appreciation

Property : Real Meaning and Nature

Forms of Property—Private, Quasi-Public, Public

Liberal View : Justification of Private Property System

Socialistic View : Appreciation of Private Property

System Subject to the Norm of Social Good

Marxian View : Stern Indictment of Private Property

System

Property as Power : Case of Economic Inequality and

the 'Odious Phenomenon of Two Nations'

Critical Appreciation

Justice : Real Meaning and Nature

Philosophical Theory : Justice as the Principle of Right

Order

Natural Theory : Justice as an Ultimate End

Legal Theory : Justice as the Enforcement of the Law

of the State

Marxist Theory : Class Concept of Justice

Social Justice : Predominance of the Interest of the

Community

Economic Justice : Elimination of Exploitation and

Proper Distribution of National Wealth

Political Justice : Commitment to the Values of a

Liberal Democratic Order

Norms of Justice : Corrective versus Distributive

Varieties

Rawls on Justice : A Redistributionist Plea for Justi-

fied Inequalities

Justice and Scientific Value Relativism : Empirical

Determination of the Ideal of Justice

Critical Appreciation

Political Obligation : Meaning and Nature

Divine Theory : Sanction of Political Obligation in a

Matter of Faith

10. PROPERTY

318

11. JUSTICE

337

12. POLITICAL OBLIGATION

373

CONTENTS

xi

Consent Theory : Sanction of Political Obligation in

the Will of the People

Prescriptive Theory : Sanction ofPohtical Obligation in

Reverence to the EstabltslTe^rGonventions

Idealistic Theory : Sanction of Political Obligation in

Innate Rationality of Man

Marxian Theory : Eventual Conversion of Political

Obligation into Social Obligation

Limits of Political Obligation : Problem of Right to

Resistance

Critical Appreciation

13. POLITICAL LEGITIMACY AND EFFECTIVENESS 393

Political Legitimacy and Effectiveness : Nature and

Essential Implications

Legitimacy and Power Relationship : Functional

Dimensions of the Political System

Idealist Theory : Sanction of Political Legitimacy in the

Establishment of a Perfect Order

Prescriptive Theory : Sanction of Political Legitimacy

in the Force of Tradition

Liberal Theory : Universal Applicability of the

Principle of Legitimacy

Marxist Theory : Power, Authority and Legitimation

Marxist and Anti-Marxist Approaches Distinguished :

Acceptance as well as Modification and Rejection of

Marx by the Elitists

Legitimacy and Conflict : Problem of Stability and

Security in a Democratic System

Acquisition of Legitimacy : Role of Ideology and

Political Leadership

Critical Appreciation
14 REVOLUTION 419

Revolution : Nature and Necessary Implications

Varieties, Characteristics, Phases and Stages of

Revolution

Liberal Theory : Emphasis on Preserving Status Quo in

the Process of Change

Marxian Theory : Emphasis on the Idea of Permanent

Revolution

Functionalist View of the Revolution : A Critique of

the Marxian View

Psychological View : Emphasis on Suppression of In-

stincts of Relative Deprivation and Upsurge of Rising

Expectations

xii CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL THEORY
Idealistic-Liberal Theory : Emphasis on Moral and

Cultural Upheaval to Lay a New Foundation of

Human Life

Revolution and 'Second Revolution' : The Problem of

Ideological Orientation

, Critical Appreciation
15. IDEOLOGY 458

Ideology : Nature and Necessary Implications

Characteristics of Ideology : The Doctrine of Reigning

Ideology

Diffusion of Ideologies : Determination of the Tests of

Their Survival

Liberal Theory : Ideology as a Highly Flexible Set of

Norms and Values

Conservative Theory : Ideology in Defence of the

Established Order

Marxian Theory : Indictment of Bourgeois Ideology as

'False Consciousness' and Its Substitution by a New

Ideology

Neo-Marxian Theory : Ideology as Utopia

Totalitarian Theory : Ideology as a Matter of

'Operational Code'

'End of Ideology' Debate : Emergence of a New

Ideology

Critical Appreciation
16. POLITICAL ALIENATION 490

Political Alienation : Nature and Essential Implica-

tions

Alienation and Polity : Political Alienation Distin- •

guished with Some Related Themes

Metaphysical Theory : Emphasis on the Unity Bet-

ween the Essential and the Real

Marxian Theory : From 'Fragmentation' to the 'Eman-

cipation' of Man

Sociological Theory : Modification as well as Mutila-

tion of the Marxian Thesis

Existential Theory : Indictment of 'Inauthentic' Life

Critical Appreciation
17. POLITICAL POWER 514

Power : Meaning and Nature of the Concept

Power Theory : Study of Power in Physical Terms

CONTENTS

Psycho-Analytical Theory : Power Identified with In-

fluence and the Role of the Influential

Sociological Theory : Power as the Authoritative

Allocator of Values in an Hierarchical Social Order

Liberal-Democratic Theory : Power Identified with

Development and Extractive Capacities

Marxian Theory : Power as the Instrument of Class

Domination

Elite Theory : Power Having its Sources in Political

and Bureaucratic Organisations

Crititical Appreciation
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