Namibia protected Landscape Conservation Areas Initiative (nam-place)




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PROJECT DOCUMENT

Republic of Namibia

United Nations Development Programme

Global Environment Facility

NAMIBIA Protected Landscape Conservation Areas Initiative (NAM-PLACE)

PIMS No: 4173 Award ID: 00059705 and Project ID 00074796

Brief Description:

Namibia has a large biodiversity endowment, which is of global significance. Although predominantly a semi arid country, Namibia contains a remarkable variety of ecosystems, ranging from hyper-arid deserts with less than 10mm of rainfall to subtropical wetlands and savannas receiving over 600mm of precipitation per annum. Four major terrestrial biomes exist, namely: Succulent Karoo, Nama Karoo, Desert and Tree and Shrub Savannah. On a finer scale, 29 different vegetation types are currently recognised, many of which are wholly unique to Namibia or to the southern African sub continent. These biomes are storehouses of high species richness: the country harbours 4,000 species and subspecies of higher plants and 658 species of birds have been recorded, of which approximately 30% is migrant. 217 species of mammals are found including unique arid varieties of desert-adapted rhino and elephant. Finally, the herpetofauna and invertebrate fauna display high diversity and endemism quotients.

The proposed project is designed to lift the barriers to establishment of a large scale network of protected landscapes and in doing so address threats to habitat and species loss on a landscape level approach, ensuring greater responsiveness to variability and seasonality issues around climate change. The project will directly bring an additional 15,550 ha of land under PA collaborative management arrangements designed to conserve biodiversity, including unprotected lands by establishing five Protected Landscape Conservation Areas (PLCA). PLCAs will first and foremost be managed for the full suite of biodiversity and landscape values, including ecosystem services (which are better managed at landscape level), also for ecosystem functioning, also performing better at landscape level, for sustainable land management and for economic performance.

The project will comprise three complementary components which will be cost shared by the GEF and co-financing. Each addresses a different barrier and has discrete outcomes. Component One will entail the development of a framework for the formalisation of existing protected landscape collaborative management arrangements as well as the creation of national level best practices guidelines for PLCA establishment developed based on, but improving, existing adaptive management arrangements. Component Two will entail the development of strategic plans approved for each PLCA as well as management and work plans for each individual landholding (e.g. conservancy, private farm, etc.) forming part of a PLCA in place. Component Three will entail developing the crucial economical sustainability aspect of PLCA management. The project is designed to generate global and national benefits through protecting globally important ecosystems. This will protect the existence values, option values and future use values enjoyed by the global community and national stakeholders that might otherwise be forfeited, should the PA estate fail to provide an effective buffer against anthropogenic threats prevalent at the landscape level.

The project is likely to run through two consecutive UNDAFs because the current UNDAF is extended to 2012 and in 2013 Namibia is likely to have a new UNDAF.

1.1Table of Contents


1.1 Table of Contents 2

1.2 Tables 5

1.3 Figures 6

1.4 Abbreviations and Acronyms 6

PART IA: Situational Analysis 12

1.1 Biophysical Context 12

Country Situation 12

Climate and Water 12

Climate Change 14

Biodiversity of Namibia 15

Protected Areas in Namibia 18

1.2 Socio-Economic Context 24

Namibian National Context 24

Socio-Economic Impacts of Climate Change 28

Growth of Tourism 28

Hunting and Fishing Tourism 30

Venison Production 31

1.3 Policy and Legislative Context 31

1.4 Institutional and Governance Context 36

Ministerial Level Governance 36

Communal Conservancies 37

Civil Society (NGOs and CBOs) 37

The Private Sector 37

PART IB: Baseline Course of Action 37

1.5 Threats to Namibia’s Biodiversity 37

National Level Threats 37

1.6 Root Cause Analysis 39

Shortcomings and gaps in the planning, policy and legal framework 39

Poor Integration of PAs and Landscape Management 41

Incomplete PA Network Coverage 43

Limitations with PA Infrastructure and Equipment 43

Human and Institutional Resource Deficit for Effective Management 44

Undervaluation of the natural resource base both within and outside the PAs 45

Insufficient PA Financing Systems and Access to Markets 45

1.7 Solutions to Threats and Root Causes 46

Establish new Protected Landscape Conservation Areas 47

Adaptive Collaborative Management of PLCAs 48

Incentives and Market Transformation 49

1.8 Barriers to the Conservation of Biodiversity 51

Absence of or Limitations in Developing Partnerships for Landscape Management 51

Inadequate Governance Framework for Landscape Level Management 51

Insufficient Focus on Market Transformation and Incentive Measures: 52

PART II: Project Strategy 53

1.9 Project Rationale and Policy Conformity 53

1.10 Project Goal, Objective, Outcome, Components and Outputs 54

Component 1. Establish new Protected Landscape Conservation Areas (PLCAs) 56

Component 2: Collaborative Governance for PLCAs 56

Component 3: Incentives and Market Transformation 56

1.11 Project Focal Landscapes 57

Mudumu Landscape (ML) 57

Greater Waterberg Landscape (GWL) 58

Greater Sossusvlei-Namib Landscape (GSNL) 59

Greater Fish River Canyon Landscape (GFRCL) 60

Windhoek Green Belt Landscape (WGBL) 61

1.12 Project Risks and Assumptions 62

1.13 Alternative Strategies Considered 63

1.14 Country Ownership and Eligibility 64

1.15 Program Designation and Conformity 65

The Fit with GEF Focal Area Strategy 65

Linkages to UNDP Country Programme 66

Linkages with GEF Financed Projects 67

1.16 Sustainability 69

Social sustainability 69

Economic sustainability 71

1.17 Climate Change Adaptation 75

1.18 Replication Strategy 77

PART III: Management Arrangements 80

1.19 Project Management & Implementation 80

Execution Modality. 80

Implementation Modality. 80

81

Project Steering Committee 81

Project Advisory Committee 82

National Level Project Management 82

Site Level Project Management 83

Project components. 84

Inception workshop 84

Technical Assistance 84

Funds flow 85

Public involvement Plan 85

Reporting 85

Legal Context 86

Audit Requirement 86

PART IV: Monitoring and Evaluation Plan 86

1.20 Project Reporting 88

1.21 Independent Evaluations 89

PART V: Incremental Logic 90

1.22 Baseline Course of Action 90

Summary of Baseline Situation 90

Baseline Situation – Development of Protected Areas on a Landscape Level 91

Baseline Situation – Developing Collaborative Governance Arrangements 91

Baseline Situation – Creating Incentives for Market Transformation 91

1.23 GEF Alternative: Expected Global and National Benefits 91

Global Benefits 95

National Benefits 96

1.24 Co-Financing 99

Total Government of Namibia co-financing is USD 14,000,000 100

Total Private Sector co-financing is USD 883,000 100

Total United Nations Development Programme co-financing is USD 100,000 100

Total Bilateral Aid Agency co-financing is USD 17,000,000 100

1.25 Cost Effectiveness 100

PART VII: Project Results Framework 104

PART VIII: Project Total Budget 117

1.26 Co-Financing summary 119

1.27 Budget Notes 121

Component 1: Establish new Protected Landscape Conservation Areas (PLCAs). 121

Component 2: Collaborative Governance for PLCAs. 122

Component 3 Incentives and Market Transformation. 123

Project Management: Ensures effective project administration and coordination have enabled timely and efficient implementation of project activities. 124

ANNEX I: Additional Information 125

ANNEX II: Stakeholder Analysis 126

1.28 Ministerial Level Stakeholders 126

Ministry of Environment and Tourism 126

MET – Directorate of Parks and Wildlife Management (DPWM): 127

MET – Directorate of Environmental Affairs (DEA) 128

MET – Directorate of Tourism (DoT) 129

MET – Directorate of Scientific Services (DSS) 130

MET – Directorate of Administration and Support Services (DASS) 131

Ministry of Lands and Resettlement (MLR) 131

Ministry of Regional and Local Government and Housing and Rural Development (MRLGHRD) 132

Ministry of Works and Transport (MWT) 132

Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry (MAWF) 133

Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources (MFMR) 133

Ministry of Mines and Energies (MME) 133

1.29 Local Authorities 134

1.30 Communal Conservancies 134

1.31 Civil Society (NGOs and CBOs) 135

1.32 Municipal Authorities 137

1.33 The Private Sector 138

1.34 Protected Landscape Level Stakeholders 138

Mudumu Landscape Stakeholders 138

Greater Waterberg Landscape Stakeholders 138

Greater Sossusvlei-Namib Landscape Stakeholders 139

Greater Fish River Canyon Landscape Stakeholders 139

Windhoek Green Belt Landscape Stakeholders 139

1.35 Stakeholder Involvement Plan 139

Introduction 139

Goal and Objectives for Stakeholder Involvement 140

Principles of Stakeholder Participation 140

Long-term Stakeholder Participation 140

ANNEX III: LANDSCAPE SITUATION 142

1.36 Overview 142

1.37 Biophysical Context on a Landscape Level 142

The Mudumu Landscape Biophysical Context 142

The Greater Waterberg Landscape Biophysical Context 144

The Greater Sossusvlei-Namib Landscape Biophysical Context 146

The Greater Fish River Canyon Landscape Biophysical Context 148

The Windhoek Green Belt Landscape Biophysical Context 151

1.38 Socio-Economic Context on a Landscape Level 153

The Mudumu Landscape Socio-Economic Context 153

The Greater Waterberg Landscape Socio-Economic Context 156

The Greater Sossuslvlei Landscape Socio-Economic Context 158

The Greater Fish River Canyon Landscape Socio-Economic Context 159

The Windhoek Green Belt Landscape Socio-Economic Context 162

1.39 Threats Analysis on a Landscape Level 163

Threats to Biodiversity in the Mudumu Landscape 163

Threats to Biodiversity in the Greater Waterberg Landscape 163

Threats to Biodiversity in the Greater Sossusvlei-Namib Landscape 164

Threats to Biodiversity in the Greater Fish River Canyon Landscape 164

Threats to Biodiversity in Windhoek Green Belt Landscape 164

ANNEX IV: LAND MANAGEMENT ISSUES 166

1.40 National Land Tenure Status 166

1.41 National Land Management Context 167

1.42 Protected Landscapes Land Management Context 168

The Mudumu Landscape 168

The Greater Waterberg Landscape 169

The Greater Sossusvlei-Namib Landscape 170

The Greater Fish River Landscape 171

The Windhoek Greenbelt Landscape 173

ANNEX V: LESSONS ON CERTIFICATION 174

1.43 The Wildlife Cheetah-friendly Beef Initiative 174

1.44 The BUSHBLOCK Concept 175

ANNEX VI: BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY 177

177

SIGNATURE PAGE 179


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