Decision Areas Marketing 1 Describe




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Business Decision Areas Marketing

1 Describe external factors that could influence the effectiveness of a marketing campaign 6

  • Political factors − Government legislation eg smoking ban in public places, marketing campaign for outdoor gazebos etc would be more effective

  • Economic factors − inflation, exchange rates affecting tourism, recession. If people don’t have the money to buy then a marketing campaign is unlikely to be effective.

  • Social factors − changes in population distribution, ie, ageing population, smaller families, women into work – Campaign must be aimed at these people to be effective.

  • Technological factors − e-commerce, use of e-mail and internet for marketing. May increase the audience and therefore likelihood of marketing campaign being successful.

  • Environmental factors − changing weather patterns, storms, more rain – products must suit this environment or campaign will make no difference to sales.

  • Competitive factors − if competitors have better campaign, better prices, more effective product then the campaign is unlikely to

NOTE – you must have a description of the External factor (can be an example) as ID marks are not given. The other mark is for how it influences a marketing campaign

Max 3 per factor
2 Explain the impact that recent trends in retailing have had on organisations 4

  • Increase in customers shopping at large retail parks have meant that organisations are moving from high street stores to retail parks

  • Increase in large superstores have meant many small local shops going out to business.

  • Vast use of e-commerce has meant organisations now must have websites with access to online purchasing

  • Changes to opening hours means many organisations have to pay overtime to staff to work on Sundays and late evenings

  • Large supermarkets selling a wide range of products has meant customers’ needs can be catered for under the one roof

  • Increase in discount stores selling products at discounted prices has meant competitor organisations have had to reduce prices in order to keep up


3 Explain the advantages to an organisation of using market segmentation 4

  • Products are developed that suit a particular market segment therefore customer needs will be more closely met

  • Allows price differentiation for different market segments therefore profit can be maximised

  • The place products are sold at will be appropriate for the particular segment therefore the goods will be available to customers, maximising sales

  • Advertising can be specific for certain segments therefore reducing costs for ineffective advertising

  • Promotional offers can be targeted to specific segments therefore aiming the promotion at the correct clientele


MINIMUM OF 2 METHODS (MAX 4 PER METHOD
4 Many organisations segment their market by gender eg male or female. Describe 6 other methods that an organisation could use to segment a market 6

Age

  • Different age groupings are used such as young or old, under 12, 13-19, 20-35, over 35.

Occupation

  • The market is segmented into different types of occupation – eg manual workers, professionals etc.

Education

  • Segmented according to the level of education attained.

Socio-economic

  • Socio-economic groupings are used to group customers in different economic classifications.

Geographical

  • Customers are segmented by area they live in.

Cultural/religious background

  • Market is segmented according to different religions are used to segment the market.

Family lifestyle

  • Customers can be segmented into either married or single.

(No ID marks awarded.)

Must show one example in description to gain award

Explain the term niche marketing. 2

  • A gap in the market has been identified that is not being filled therefore little competition exists.

  • Companies aim a specific product/service at a small market segment as they will gain big profits at the start if they are successful

  • A company will attempt to build up expertise in that area so that they will be able to compete with any competition which may enter the market

  • Can be risky as only a small group of specialised customers exists


5 Explain the various means of sampling that could be used to obtain a cross section of views when carrying out market research. 4

Award one mark for each correct point.

  • Random Sampling − individuals are pre-selected at random, i.e. from the telephone book or the electoral register, and an interviewer makes calls to those people from the list. This can be difficult to carry out as once the people are selected they must be interviewed so the interviewer must continually try to contact the person.

  • Quota Sampling − instructions are given as to the number of people to interview and in what characteristic group they should be from, ie, married or single, each different income group.

  • The researcher can then find the correct number of people in each category as each group has been identified

  • It is cheaper than random sampling as you do not need to continually call people

  • Stratified Sampling − the sample is divided up into segments based on how the population as a whole is divided up.

  • This makes a random sample more representative of the population as a whole.

  • For example, income groupings will be divided up closely to match the national percentages of each income group.

Max 3 if just one method
6 Describe and justify 3 market research techniques that an organisation could use to assess customer satisfaction (a different justification should be used each time) 6


  • Telephone surveys are used by organisations to call customers and gain their views. (Description) This means instant feedback can be given. (Justification)

  • Postal survey where questionnaires are posted out to customers who complete them and return them to the organisations. (Description) Could send these out to all customers, or customers in selected areas, gaining their opinions. (Justification)

  • Personal interview where people are stopped in the street and asked questions (Description) can clarify any questions to aid understanding. (J) Allows 2 way communications. (Justification)

  • Secondary information such as statistics on the number of subscribers to satellite TV. (Description) Easily accessible. (Justification)

(Max 1 for secondary information.)
7 Describe 4 methods of field research 8

  • Personal interview: face-to-face interview that can be held in the street or at a person’s home.

  • Focus group: selected individuals are involved in discussions about an organisations product or service.

  • Telephone survey: individuals are telephoned at their home and asked specific questions.

  • Postal survey: questionnaires are sent through the post to selected individuals.

  • Consumer audit: continuous market research is carried out with a selected group of consumers who record their purchases in a diary which is then analysed.

  • Hall test: individuals are invited to try out a product and then give their opinion on it.

  • Observation: Customer’s actions and purchasing patterns are observed by trained staff.

  • EPOS: used to gain an insight into what products are selling in each store.

  • Test Marketing: product is launched on a small area to gauge the consumers’ response.

2 marks per area

Accept any feature, advantage and disadvantage as part of description

NOT – less time consuming than ...; cheaper than …


8 Organisations spend vast sums of money developing new products.

Describe the stages that take place before a new product is launched onto the market. 6

  • Idea is generated through market research.

  • Pros and cons of idea are discussed and analysed

  • The appropriate finance is found for the new product

  • Decision is made regarding whether the product is legal/technically possible/can be produced

  • Prototype is produced (working model usually on a smaller scale)

  • A test market is chosen and the product is distributed to them

  • The product is altered according to feedback from testing

  • Full scale production or finalised product takes place

  • Product is advertised heavily prior to launch

ONLY ONE MARK EACH FOR PROTOTYPE, TEST, ALTER PRODUCT
9 Describe the reasons why organisations focus on research and development 4

  • Ensure consumers are provided with the products they want – this is the only Market Research point available

  • Improves on existing products

  • Produces new products

  • Keeps the organisation ahead of its competitors

  • Finding a unique product can become very profitable

  • Ensures products are safe

(No ID marks are awarded, ie, the words ‘unique products’ would not be credited with a mark.)
10 Explain how various methods of extending a product’s life cycle can increase sales 6

  • Improve the product – this will attract new consumers to purchase the product, or previous consumers to retry the product to find out what has been improved or if the product is better

  • Alter the packaging – this may appeal to a different market segment or may attract new customers to the product as the packing is eye-catching. Eg, Pepsi altered the colour of their cans to attract a younger generation

  • Increase/decrease the price – price changes can attract new consumers to purchase the product and existing consumers to purchase more of the product. Price rise may make the product seem more exclusive and attract new customers. Price decrease may mean existing customers purchase more of the product. Eg, lowering the price will mean families with lower income may purchase the product

  • Use a different or new advertising campaign/advertising media – this will highlight the product in a different manner or could be eye-catching to a new group of consumers. Eg, change advertising from newspapers/billboards to TV

  • Change the use of the product – new use of the product will be popular with different market segments than the original use and attract a wider consumer base. Eg, Lucozade became a fitness drink from a health drink

  • Introduce line extensions to the product – various product line extensions will appeal to different segments and may increase overall sales

  • Change the name of the product – by changing the name, the product may appear different or better in the eyes of the consumer. Also allows for a whole new range of promotions/adverts to be launched which should attract attention

  • Alter the place the product is sold – selling the product in a variety of ways will mean a larger number of consumers can purchase the product, ie, selling online can attract a worldwide audience

An example can be used as part of the explanation of the method
11 Some organisations change the packaging of their products to make them more eye-catching and appealing to consumers.

Explain 5 other methods of extending a product’s life cycle. 5

  • Improve the product – eg lighter, new features etc.

  • Alter price – eg increase/decrease price.

  • Change the method of advertising – eg from TV to radio.

  • Change the use of the product – eg Lucozade once was used to reenergise ill people, now used as a sports drink.

  • Introduce line extensions to the product – eg different flavours, sizes, formats etc.

  • Change the name of the product – eg Opal Fruits to Starburst, Marathon to Snickers.

  • Alter the place the product is sold – eg selling on-line.

METHOD CAN BE EXPLAINED THROUGH AN EXAMPLE
12 Some organisations still sell their original product a number of years after it was first launched. Explain how extension strategies can prolong the life of a product 6

  • Increased advertising of the product will increase awareness, or persuasive advertising techniques, might mean consumers may purchase more of the product or service

  • Reduce the price to increase sales therefore people will buy more frequently/in larger volume – eg 20% off

  • Change the market for the product therefore new customers will be found – eg firelighters now sold to campers

  • Re-launch the product as this will remind the previous customers that the product is still on the market and may also attract new customers

  • Alter the products packaging as this will draw attention to the product and may attract new customers

  • Change the products name as this raises awareness of the product. Eg Opal Fruits to Starburst

  • Find a new use for the product as this will create new customers from a different market segment (eg lucozade used to be for sick people – now an energy drink for sportsmen)

  • Develop a range of the same product in different sizes or shapes eg mars min, snack size etc

  • Use promotional techniques to stimulate demand eg BOGOF, competitions etc

(When the command word explain is used then there must be a development to explain the reason. No marks are credited for merely identification.) REMEMBER YOU CAN EXPLAIN THROUGH AN EXAMPLE
13 Many companies selling branded goods (eg Levi and Pepsi-Cola) are moving into new markets such as China.

Describe the benefits of holding a brand name. 4

  • It may be seen as a guarantee of quality therefore encourage sales

  • It may make a product easily recognisable

  • It adds snob value/image as brands are recognised as good quality

  • Brand loyalty may result meaning higher prices can be charged

  • A company can launch new products on the back of the reputation of others

  • It adds value to the Balance Sheet (intangible asset)

  • Marketing costs can be saved if brand profile is high – eg McDonalds bringing out new burger – only need short advert

  • Brand names may be purchased because they are in fashion

  • Can expand more easily into new countries – eg McDonalds in China


14 Discuss the effects on an organisation of branding their products 6

Advantages

  • Products in the brand range are instantly recognisable

  • Brand loyalty can be built up

  • Repeat purchases increase sales

  • Is perceived to be of high quality

  • Premium prices can be charged

  • Can be used as a marketing tool for advertising purposes

  • Makes it easier to launch new products onto the market

Disadvantages

  • Brands names can be expensive to build up

  • Bad publicity can affect the whole brand

  • Imitator and fake products are common


15 Explain the effects that branding its products could have on an organisation 5

  • Ensures products are easily identified by consumers therefore they will purchase their product and not a rivals

  • To launch new products easier as the brand name will mean customers trust new products if they have previously used a different/old product.

  • Higher prices can be charged therefore profits will be higher for the organisation.

  • Will create brand loyalty therefore customers will repeatedly purchase the product.

  • Can mean high advertising costs due to promotion therefore profits might be affected.

  • However, once successful in the market place can allow organisations to save money on marketing therefore increasing sales and profitability.

  • Can be used to create an exclusive image like ASDA and George which means customers can only purchase that brand from the specific organisation.


16 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of branding to an organisation

4

Advantages

  • Customers recognise products immediately and are more likely to choose it over similar looking products

  • Brand loyalty is established

  • Consumers perceive the product to be of better quality so purchase it as opposed to competitive products

  • Organisation can charge higher prices

  • Products can be launched successfully under the same brand name

Disadvantages

  • A single bad event, with bad publicity, affects the whole range

  • Open to imitation/fake products

  • Costs high in fighting counterfeit products

  • Difficult for manufacturers of non-branded goods, to convince customers to try their products

  • Takes a long time and a lot of expensive promotion to establish a brand

Max 3 for advantages or disadvantages
17 Discuss the effects on an organisation of branding their products 6
Advantages

  • Products in the brand range are instantly recognisable

  • Brand loyalty can be built up

  • Repeat purchases increase sales

  • Is perceived to be of high quality

  • Premium prices can be charged

  • Can be used as a marketing tool for advertising purposes

  • Makes it easier to launch new products onto the market


Disadvantages

  • Brands names can be expensive to build up

  • Bad publicity can affect the whole brand

  • Imitator and fake products are common


18 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages to organisations such as Asda of selling own brand products 4

Advantages

  • Own labels require very little advertising.

  • Can attract customers to the store ie George at ASDA.

  • The retailer does not need to produce the own brand products.

  • A range of products with own labels can be sold.

  • Some ‘own brands’ can be seen as value for money and a quality product (eg Asda Extra Special range)

  • Own labels are cheaper to customers

Disadvantages

  • Whole brands can be tarnished over 1 products failure or problem.

  • Own brands are often seen as inferior products to manufacturers brands

Maximum of 3 advantages or disadvantages

19a) Identify 2 objectives of firms operating in a highly competitive market such as the mobile phone industry 2

  • to increase profits

  • to dominate the market

  • to eliminate a competitor

  • to be the most innovative (develop product)

  • to survive

  • to grow

19b) Describe pricing strategies which could be used to achieve the following objectives 4

Increase market Share /dominate the market

  • Low price strategy (destroyer) could be used to undercut the competitor

  • Price is set lower than competitors and then raised once competitor leaves the market

Increase/ Maximise Profits

  • High price strategy where prices are put up in order to realise more profit.

  • This can only be used for products where demand won’t fall as a result of the high prices

  • Promotional pricing where price charged is reduced in order to increase sales

Be the leading innovator (Apple)

  • High prices can be charged for an innovative product (skimming); money spent on innovation can reduce profits

To Grow

  • Penetration pricing where low price is charged when a new product is launched – enables growth

Accept any pricing strategy Candidates must describe at least 2 strategies

Award a MAXIMUM of 3 marks for one strategy
20 Describe 4 factors which allow organisations to remain successful while charging customers high prices 4

  • Brand loyalty – consumers choose to buy the product despite cheaper alternatives being available

  • Lack of competition – there is no alternative product for the consumer

  • Successful marketing – strong advertising/promotion can convince consumer that the price is worth paying

  • Image – consumers wish to be seen wearing/using the expensive product as it enhances their personal image

  • Holding a Unique Selling Point – the product may have a unique feature Limited supply Holding a patent

  • High Quality product will attract high prices


21 Explain why firms use loss leaders as a pricing tactic. 3

  • The price is set very low therefore it brings customers into the shop

  • Customers then buy other products which are normally priced therefore profits are made on the whole amount a customer purchases.

  • Creates customer loyalty as customers don’t go to competitors shops

  • Can be used in a marketing campaign as low prices are a method of promotion


22a) Describe a pricing tactic which could be used to ensure a new product or service appears exclusive 2

Skimming

  • Where a product is highly priced when entering the market for the first time

  • Some people are prepared to pay this and once this market segment is saturated, the price is lowered to target another segment.

OR

Premium

  • The premium price is a where a high price is retained.

  • Gives a USP


22b) Contrast this with a pricing tactic which could be used by a firm in a highly competitive market

  • Price may be lowered to match that of the competitor.

OR

  • They may undercut the competitor and hope to remove the competitor from the market.

OR

  • Be satisfied that they receive some income rather than earn nothing.

  • Accept penetration pricing

No ID marks (2)
23 Describe 3 pricing tactics that could be used when an organisation attempts to break into a new market 6


  • High Price – price is set higher than competitors to give the image of quality and exclusiveness.

  • Low Price – price is set lower than competitors to attract customers to their product/service.

  • Skimming – price is set high initially when no competition exists, when competitors enter the market price is lowered to market price.

  • Market/Competitive Pricing – price is set at the same level as competitors, normally used for products that are identical.

  • Penetration Pricing – price is set slightly lower than competitors to attract customers, once a customer base has been created price is slowly increased to same as competitors.

  • Promotional Pricing – a low price is set for a short period of time to boost sales in the short term, possibly even making a loss on the product.

  • Destroyer Pricing – price is set very low compared to competitors and once there is no competition in the market the price is then put back up to the previous level or higher, used mainly by larger organisations to destroy competition, must have large reserves to sustain this over any length of time

Max of 4 per area

If label given, must match description to gain award(s)
24 Describe the factors an organisation would take into account before choosing a channel of distribution. 5
The product

  • If the product requires specialised technical knowledge then direct selling between the manufacturer and the customer may be the best option. If the product is aimed at the mass-market then wholesalers and retailers will probably be used as it can be more easily distributed.

  • Wholesalers may break down bulk for retailers saving the manufacture doing so.

  • Perishable products would be best distributed through a direct channel


The Finance Available

  • if there is limited finance available then this will affect the choice of channels

  • Large companies may have the finance to support their own distribution network


The image of the product

  • If the image is of a high quality product this will affect the channel that the organisation chooses

  • If an exclusive image is desired, then it may be distributed in exclusive outlets


Legal restrictions

  • There may be laws which dictate where and when a product can be sold from eg licenced premises for alcohol


Consumer Buying Habits

  • Manufacturers will place products where customers expect to buy them.

  • Accept examples as part of the description


The distribution capability

  • A manufacturer may choose to use a wholesaler if it cannot distribute the products themselves, eg due to lack of transport.

  • A manufacturer may use wholesalers and retailers when the market is large and widespread as it would be expensive and time-consuming for the manufacturer to distribute to a very large number of shops.

25 Wholesalers buy goods in large quantities directly from manufacturers. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages to a manufacturer of using a wholesaler 4

Advantages

  • Saves on a number of smaller deliveries to retailers

  • Administration costs are reduced due to bulk buying

  • Less money tied up in stock (warehousing etc)

  • Less stock goes obsolete due to bulk buying

  • Wholesalers may label the product saving the wholesaler time

  • Wholesalers break product down into smaller more saleable size

  • Wholesalers can give market research direct to manufacturer (customer feedback, sales etc)

Disadvantages

  • Loss of control of how the product is presented

  • Less profits as wholesaler has to mark up the product as well in order to make a profit, ie using middle men.

  • Costs involved in producing point of sale merchandising for wholesalers. (into the pipeline promotion)


26 Wholesalers are responsible for purchasing in bulk. Explain the role of the wholesaler 4

  • Provides a link between the manufacturer and the retailer as he buys from the manufacturer and sells to the retailer

  • Saves manufacturer from making numerous small deliveries to retailers – therefore transport and administration costs are saved

  • Saves manufacturer from costs of holding high stock levels as it will quickly be sold to the wholesaler

  • Wholesaler may take on the work of labelling products for the retailer therefore saving the manufacturer time

  • Once goods have been purchased from the manufacturer the wholesaler has control over how the product is sold on as he may sell products direct to customers or to a retailer


27 Describe the reasons why some manufacturers sell their products to retailers rather than directly to customers 4

  • Retailers are located closer to the customer

  • They often have an established customer base

  • They can hold stock, saving the manufacturers from doing so

  • Retailers have trained sales staff whom are knowledgeable about the products

  • Retailers will attract customers by offers of credit facilities

  • Retailers can offer appropriate after sales services

  • Reduced delivery cost as retailers buy in bulk

  • Retailers paying for advertising

  • Products displayed attractively by the retailer


28 Discuss different forms of direct selling available to organisations.

Mail order − goods sold via catalogues.

  • Offers credit facilities.

  • Can be exclusive and only way to purchase some products.

  • Saves expensive High Street locations.

  • Consumers may not like the lack of personal service and many goods require to be returned.

  • Involves high advertising costs.

  • High levels of bad debts occur.


Internet selling − firms sell their products or services over the Internet.

  • Consumers can order online from the comfort of their home.

  • Saves time and hassle of travelling to High Street stores.

  • Some concerns over the use of credit cards and the security involved.

  • Goods delivered direct to home of consumer.

  • Saves on overhead costs.

  • Available 24/7.

  • Cheaper prices

Direct mail − companies send letters/leaflets advertising their products for sale directly to homes of possible consumers.

  • Consumers within specific market segments can then be targeted directly.

  • Can reach wide geographical areas.

  • Consumers do not respond well to vast amounts of junk mail.

  • Specialist magazines − used to describe and sell specialised products direct to consumers.

  • Consumers can telephone or fill in order forms and send them in.

  • Consumers who purchase the magazine are interested in that area

Personal selling − products are sold door-to-door or by telesales.

  • Can be direct to retailers or to consumers.

  • Allows the product to be demonstrated.

  • Consumers are not keen on being disturbed at home


29 Describe and justify 4 methods of direct selling that could be used by an organisation. (A different justification must be used to support each description.) 8

Personal selling – products are sold by experienced sales personnel on a one to one basis (Description)

    • Direct contact can be made to the retailer or consumer (Justification)

    • Can be tailor-made to customer requirements (Justification)

    • Demonstrations of the product or service can be shown (Justification)

Mail order – goods sold via catalogues and orders sent by post (Description)

    • Offers credit facilities (Justification)

    • No need for High Street stores (Justification)


Internet selling – making use of websites to sell products (Description)

    • Consumers can order online from offices or homes

    • Is available worldwide (Justification)

    • Can be accessed 24/7(Justification)


Specialist magazines – used to describe and sell specialised products or services (Description)

    • Customers who are sent or purchase the magazine are directly interested (Justification)

    • Consumers can phone in orders or speak to specialists (Justification)

Max of 4 description marks

Watch for repetition

(No ID marks are given. A description of the method must be given to be awarded a mark.)

Accept TV − shopping channels (description)

Phone/Door-to-door/Personal Selling = max 1
30 Manufacturers use short term promotional measures to boost sales of products or services to retailers (into the pipeline promotions). Identify and describe 2 of these measures.

  • Point of sale of materials – Where the retailer is given materials such as displays etc to bring the customers attention to the item for sale

  • Dealer loaders – where the retailer is given extra eg every box of mars has 20% extra in it

  • Sale or return – Where the manufacturer will take back any unsold goods at the end of a period of time – eg unsold newspapers are taken back at the end of the day

  • Competitions – Where the retailer can win prizes

  • Staff training – Where the retailer is educated on the product features and how to work it and becomes confident in selling it

  • Credit facilities - Where retailers are given the opportunity to buy now and pay later

  • Bulk buying discounts – Where the retailer is given extra eg 2 boxes for the price of 1

REMEMBER INTO THE PIPELINE IS PROMOTIONS TO ENCOURAGE THE RETAILER/ SHOP TO STOCK THE GOODS FOR SALE

(Any 2 correct)

Must include a description to gain the second mark.
31 Describe 4 different sales promotions that could be carried out by a retailer. 4

  • Free samples to consumers to attempt to make them purchase the product if they like the sample

  • Credit facilities given to customers to allow them to pay back over a period of time

  • Bonus packs for customers that often have extra free amounts or a gift included

  • BOGOF – where the customer buys one item and get another item free of charge

  • Competitions used by companies which consumers enter to win prizes

  • Demonstrations of products in supermarkets to let customers try products/services before purchasing

  • Loyalty cards where customers earn points for every purchased which can be saved up and exchanged for other goods

(No ID marks are awarded, ie, ‘credit facilities’ would not be credited with a mark. A description must be given.)

REMEMBER PROMOTIONS BY THE RETAILER ARE TO ENCOURAGE THE CUSTOMER TO PURCHASE THE GOODS (OUT OF THE PIPELINE

Do not accept advertising
32 Describe the benefits of using the Internet to market products 5

  • Can sell its products on the Internet, e-commerce OR customer benefit of online shopping eg free delivery, online discounts etc

  • Increased potential market to become worldwide

  • Consumers can order 24/7

  • Customers can leave their details on company website

  • Customers can gain information about the products

  • Market research can be carried out/on-line questionnaires

  • Can research information on competitors or suppliers

  • Gives the image of an up-to-date company

  • Hyperlinks with other sites can be included


33 Organisations use various forms of advertising media to bring their products to the attention of consumers.

Describe and justify different forms of advertising media. (Give a different justification each time) 6

Television

  • Where the advert is broadcast either on national or regional Television before, after and between shows (Description)

  • Large audiences can be targeted at the one time which allows it to cover all market segments (Justification)

  • Products can appear appealing which will attract more customers (Justification)

  • High profile can be maintained with regular advertising which will keep the product in the consumer’s mind (Justification)

Newspapers/Magazines

  • Where the advertisement is printed over a period of time in local or national newspapers or magazines (Description)

  • National or local exposure can be obtained in order to suit the market segment or product (Justification)

  • Technical information can be given to customers which is necessary for some products or situations such as high specification cars (Justification)

  • Customers can refer back to the advert allowing consumers longer to make purchasing decisions (Justification)

  • Large national circulations allow for a large exposure of the product or service over wide geographical locations (Justification)

Radio

  • Where the advertisement is broadcast on regional / national radio at regular intervals over a period of time (Description)

  • Cheaper than television therefore saves the organisation’s money (Justification)

  • Can have a captive audience as listeners tend not to change channels if an advert comes on (Justification)

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