4th Grade Curricular Areas Included




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Unit Outline
Title: Volcanoes
Level: 4th Grade
Curricular Areas Included: Science, Social Studies, English/Language Arts/Reading, Technology.
Time Frame: 1 week.
Goals/Objectives: Students will be able to identify the parts of a volcano as well as understand why and where they occur. They will also be able to note a few historical volcanoes.
TEKS:

Science

4.2.B- The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to collect information by observing and measuring.
4.2.D- The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to communicate valid conclusions.
4.2.E- The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to construct simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts to organize, examine, and evaluate information.
4.3.C- The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to represent the natural world using models and indentify their limitations.
Social Studies

4.6 Geography. The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:

(A)  apply geographic tools, including grid systems, legends, symbols, scales, and compass roses, to construct and interpret maps.
4.22 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between, locate, and use primary and secondary sources such as computer software; interviews; biographies; oral, print, and visual material; and artifacts to acquire information about the United States and Texas;

(C)  organize and interpret information in outlines, reports, databases, and visuals including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps;

(F)  use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.

English/Language Arts/Reading

4.1  Listening/speaking/purposes. The student listens actively and purposefully in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A)  determine the purposes for listening such as to gain information, to solve problems, or to enjoy and appreciate (4-8).
4.2 (A) The student listens critically to analyze and evaluate a speaker’s message(s). The student is expected to interpret speakers’ messages (both verbal and nonverbal), purposes, and perspectives.
4.8  Reading/variety of texts. The student reads widely for different purposes in varied

sources. The student is expected to:

(C) read for varied purposes such as to be informed, to be entertained, to appreciate the writer's craft, and to discover models for his/her own writing (4-8).
4.9 (A)- The student acquires an extensive vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to develop vocabulary by listening to selections read aloud.
4.9 (C)- The student acquires an extensive vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to use multiple reference aids, including a thesaurus, a synonym finder, a dictionary, and software, to clarify meanings and usage.
4.10 Reading/comprehension. The student comprehends selections using a variety of strategies. The student is expected to:

(K)  answer different types and levels of questions such as open-ended, literal, and interpretative as well as test-like questions such as multiple choice, true-false, and short answer (4-8).

(L)  represent text information in different ways such as in outline, timeline, or graphic organizer (4-8).
4.13  Reading/inquiry/research. The student inquires and conducts research using a variety of sources. The student is expected to:

(C)  use multiple sources, including electronic texts, experts, and print resources, to locate information relevant to research questions (4-8); (E)  summarize and organize information from multiple sources by taking notes, outlining ideas, or making charts (4-8); (G)  draw conclusions from information gathered from multiple sources (4-8).
4.15 Writing/purposes. The student writes for a variety of audiences and purposes, and in a variety of forms.

(A) The student writes for a variety of audiences and purposes, and in a variety of forms. The student is expected to write to express, discover, record, develop, reflect on ideas, and to problem solve

(D) write to entertain such as to compose humorous poems or short stories
4.16 Writing/penmanship/capitalization/punctuation. The student composes original texts, applying the conventions of written language such as capitalization, punctuation, and penmanship to communicate clearly.
4.17 Writing/spelling. The student spells proficiently.
4.21  Writing/inquiry/research. The student uses writing as a tool for learning and research. The student is expected to:

(C)  take notes from relevant and authoritative sources such as guest speakers, periodicals, and on-line searches (4-8);

(D)  summarize and organize ideas gained from multiple sources in useful ways such as outlines, conceptual maps, learning logs, and timelines (4-8).
Technology

b(3) Foundations. The student complies with the laws and examines the issues regarding the use of technology in society.

-follow acceptable use policies when using computers
b(7) Solving problems. The student uses appropriate computer-based productivity tools to create and modify solutions to problems.

-use software programs with audio, video, and graphics to enhance learning experiences
b(8) Solving problems. The student uses research skills and electronic communication, with appropriate supervision, to create new knowledge.

-use interactive technology environments, such as simulations, electronic science or mathematics laboratories, virtual museum field trips, or on-line interactive lessons, to manipulate information

Vocabulary:
Plate tectonics Volcano Lava

Magma Crater Vent

Volcanic Dust Volcanic Ash Volcanic Bombs

Cinders Cinder Cones Shield Volcano

Composite Cones Pacific Ring of Fire Aleutian Arc

Volcanologists Dormant Eruption

Conduit Summit Ash

Ash Cloud Dike Throat

Flank
Major Teaching/Learning Activities:

  • Volcano research project.

  • Mapping our volcanoes.

  • Building an experimental volcano.

  • Vocabulary Motion Game.

  • Exploding Volcano Lift and Look Book.

  • Volcano Model


Main Materials:

  • Volcanoes, by Seymour Simon.

  • Overhead projector and pen.

  • If I Was A…? Worksheet.

  • Overhead maps.

  • List of volcanoes.

  • Research materials.

  • small drink bottle

  • 60 ml water

  • 1 tablespoon baking soda

  • 1/4 cup vinegar

  • Orange food coloring

  • few drops of detergent

  • Small Square of tissue.

  • Modeling clay

  • Volcano Model Reproducible

  • Science Journals

  • Exploding Volcano Reproducible

  • Labeled Poster of Volcano

  • Dictionaries

  • Scissors

  • Tape

  • Colored Pencils

  • Toothpaste


Evaluation/Assessment:

Lesson Plan: Volcanoes, Volcanoes Everywhere

  • KWL chart will show what students have learned.

  • Presentations will show what students have learned.

  • Did the students find information and record it on their If I Was A…? Worksheet?

  • Did the students map their volcano in the right area?

Lesson Plan:

  • Class discussion of experiments and projects will show the students understanding of volcanoes.

Lesson Plan: Erupting Volcanoes!

  • The Journal Rubric will assess students learning.

  • The Valuable Volcano Vocabulary Quiz will assess what the students have learned.



Lesson Overview
Volcanoes, Volcanoes Everywhere…

  • Day One & Two

  • The goal of this lesson is to learn the history and geography of volcanoes.

  • Involves social studies, English/Language Arts/Reading

  • This lesson will tie into the overall objective of the unit by teaching the students where volcanoes occur and with their ability to name a few famous volcanoes.

  • The major focus of this lesson is for the students to learn the history and geography of volcanoes.

  • This lesson is appropriate for 4th graders because it is a fun topic for them to learn about which they will find very interesting.


Erupting Volcanoes!

  • Day Three

  • The objective of this lesson is to teach the students vocabulary associated with volcanoes and to learn how and why they erupt.

  • Involves science, writing, reading/vocabulary development, listening/speaking.

  • This lesson ties into the overall objective because it will teach the students the different parts of the volcano and show them how they occur.

  • The major focus of this lesson is the science of the volcano (how it works and why).

  • This lesson is appropriate for 4th graders because it teaches them about science that takes place in our environment today.


Building My Volcano

  • Day 4

  • The objective of this lesson is to let the child explore different types of art medias while creating a replica of a volcano.

  • Involves science, language arts, art.

  • This lesson ties into the overall objective because it will allow the children to create a volcano with different art medias and they can learn the different parts of the volcano as they go.

  • The major focus of this activity is tying art into learning about volcanoes.

  • This lesson is a fun activity for 4th graders to get their hands involved in while they are learning at the same time.



Volcanoes, Volcanoes Everywhere…

Lesson Plan
Level: 4th Grade

Curricular Areas Included: Social Studies, English/Language Arts/Reading

Time Frame: 2 days.
History
Goals/Objectives:

  • After researching and listening to the other student’s found information, the learners will know the history of volcanoes.

  • After researching a specific volcano the learners will be able to write a brief history of the specific volcano assigned to them.

  • After mapping the volcanoes studied in the class, the learners will be able to see a pattern of where volcanoes usually occur.


TEKS:

Social Studies

  • 4.6.A- apply geographic tools, including grid systems, legends, symbols, scales, and compass roses, to construct and interpret maps

  • 4.22.A- The student is expected to differentiate between, locate, and use primary and secondary sources such as computer software; interviews; biographies; oral, print, and visual material; and artifacts to acquire information about the United States and Texas.

  • 4.22.C- The student is expected to organize and interpret information in outlines, reports, databases, and visuals including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.

  • 4.22.F-  use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.


English/Language Arts/Reading (Listening/Speaking Purposes and Writing)

  • Listening- 4.1.A- The student is expected to determine the purposes for listening such as to gain information, to solve problems, or to enjoy and appreciate (4-8);

  • Writing- 4.8.C- The student is expected to read for varied purposes such as to be informed, to be entertained, to appreciate the writer's craft, and to discover models for his/her own writing (4-8).

  • Reading/Comprehension- 4.10.K- The students is expected to answer different types and levels of questions such as open-ended, literal, and interpretative as well as test-like questions such as multiple choice, true-false, and short answer (4-8)

  • Reading/Comprehension- 4.10.L- The student is expected to represent text information in different ways such as in outline, timeline, or graphic organizer (4-8).

  • Reading/Inquiry/Research- 4.13.C- The student is expected to use multiple sources, including electronic texts, experts, and print resources, to locate information relevant to research questions (4-8);

  • Reading/Inquiry/Research- 4.13.E- The student is expected to summarize and organize information from multiple sources by taking notes, outlining ideas, or making charts (4-8)

  • Reading/Inquiry/Research- 4.13.G- The student is expected to draw conclusions from information gathered from multiple sources (4-8)

  • Writing/purposes- 4.15.C- The student is expected to write to inform such as to explain, describe, report, and narrate

  • Writing/Inquiry/Research- 4.21.C- The student is expected to take notes from relevant and authoritative sources such as guest speakers, periodicals, and on-line searches (4-8)

  • Writing/Inquiry/Research- 4.21.D- The student is expected to summarize and organize ideas gained from multiple sources in useful ways such as outlines, conceptual maps, learning logs, and timelines.


Anticipatory Focus
Materials:

  • Book: Volcanoes, by Seymour Simon

  • KWL Chart


Instructional Steps:

  1. Begin by activating background knowledge by doing a KWL activity and having the students divide into groups and write down what they know, want to know, and want to learn.

  2. Ask the groups to share their responses to the KWL.

  3. Begin volcano lesson by reading Volcanoes by Seymour Simon to the class. This will introduce or reintroduce volcanoes to the students.

  4. When they research is complete have the students fill in the last column of their KWL chart.


Individual Activity: Volcano Research
Materials:

  • If I Was A Volcano worksheet

  • List of volcanoes to research

  • Library access


Instructional Steps:

  1. Have the students choose a volcano from the list provided.

  2. As a class we will visit the library so the children can research the volcano they chose.

  3. They will gain the information asked on the worksheet in order to fill in the blanks.

  4. We will go back to the classroom and the students will write a brief description of “their” volcano using the information they acquired in the library.

  5. Each student will share this information with the class.


Group Activity: Mapping the Volcanoes
Materials:

  • A blank overhead map of the world.

  • An overhead pen.


Instructional Steps:

1. Each student will have a turn coming up to the overhead and placing a mark on the location of their researched volcano.
Input:

  • Visual Aid in the form of literature and work on the projector.

  • Auditory learning will be used during class discussion and as each child tells about the volcano they researched.

  • Kinesthetic learning will be used when they children travel to the library and get to search through different research materials.

  • Naturalistic intelligence will be gained when they learn the traits of a volcano and the nature that they exist in.

  • Interpersonal skills will be used when the children work in groups and as their findings are discussed with the class.


Modeling:

  • Teacher will assist the students with their research.

  • Teacher will assist the students with finding the correct area to mark on the map.

  • Teacher will read a book aloud to the class and lead a discussion of what was learned from the book.

  • Teacher will lead a discussion of the KWL chart to get the volcano research started.


Checking for Understanding:

  • The class discussion of the different kinds of volcanoes will provide insight on how much the student understands about the specific volcano that they researched.

  • Throughout the lesson the teacher will ask open-ended questions to further the critical thinking of the students.

  • The KWL chart will be a source for understanding of what the students have learned.


Guided Practice:

  • Guided practice will be used as the teacher assists the students with their research.

  • Guided practice will also be used when the teacher assists the students in mapping their volcanoes on the map.


Reteach:

  • The teacher will be able to check for the student’s understanding as they fill in their KWL chart. This will show the teacher what the students knew and what they have learned during the lesson.

  • If needed a video could be shown to the class so they can get a better understanding of volcanoes.


Mastery Check:

  • Checking the student’s KWL charts to see what they have learned will serve as mastery check.

  • Listening to the student’s presentations will also serve as mastery check.


Extension:

  • Other books about volcanoes: The Best Book of Volcanoes by Simon Adams, National Geographic Readers Volcanoes! by Anne Schreiber, Volcanoes (Wonders of Our World) by Neil Morris, Volcanoes by Trudi Strain Trueit.

  • Videos about volcanoes: National Geographic – Volcano! , Ultimate Guide ~ Volcanoes.


Provisions for Students with Special Needs:

  • The research could be done using partners if there are children with special needs in the classroom.

  • Make sure there are adequate materials available for children with special needs.


Resources


Erupting Volcanoes!

Lesson Plan

Level: 4th Grade

Curricular Areas: Science, Writing, Reading/Vocabulary Development, Listening/Speaking

Time Frame: 2 hours
Goals/Objectives:

  • After exposure to new vocabulary students will be able to identify the parts of a volcano.

  • After instruction the learner will be able to explain why a volcano erupts.

  • After creating a model volcano, students will be able to give a written explanation of the differences and similarities between the pressure built up in a tube of toothpaste and in that of a volcano.

TEKS:

Science

  • 4.2.B- The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to collect information by observing and measuring.

  • 4.2.D- The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to communicate valid conclusions.

  • 4.2.E- The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to construct simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

  • 4.3.C- The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to represent the natural world using models and indentify their limitations.

Writing

  • 4.15.A- The student writes for a variety of audiences and purposes, and in a variety of forms. The student is expected to write to express, discover, record, develop, reflect on ideas, and to problem solve.

Reading/Vocabulary Development

  • 4.9.A- The student acquires an extensive vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to develop vocabulary by listening to selections read aloud.

  • 4.9.C- The student acquires an extensive vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to use multiple reference aids, including a thesaurus, a synonym finder, a dictionary, and software, to clarify meanings and usage.

Listening/Speaking

  • 4.2.A The student listens critically to analyze and evaluate a speaker’s message(s). The student is expected to interpret speakers’ messages (both verbal and nonverbal), purposes, and perspectives.


Anticipatory Focus

Materials:

  • Volcanoes by Seymour Simon

  • Labeled Poster of a Volcano

  • Dictionaries

Instructional Steps:

  1. Show students a labeled poster of a volcano with the following key words

◊crater ◊ash

◊dormant ◊ash cloud

◊eruption ◊dike

◊lava ◊vent

◊magma ◊throat

◊conduit ◊cinder cone

◊summit ◊flank

Ask the students if they are familiar with any of these words; if so, what do they mean.

  1. Read Volcanoes by Seymour Simon. The students will discover that not all volcanoes look like “mountains”.

  2. Divide the students into pairs. Give each pair an index card with a vocabulary word. The students will then use dictionaries to look up their vocabulary term in the dictionary to find its definition and write it on the lined side of their index card.

  3. After a pair writes down their definition, they are responsible for coming up with a motion that identifies their word. For example, if the word was lava one child could make a volcano with their arms and the other could use their hand to show a liquid flowing down the volcano.

  4. Once everyone has their motions ready, the class will come together in a circle and begin sharing. Each time someone new shares they must do their motion as well as any other motion that has gone before them. Say “lava” goes first. The next pair is “crater”. Their motion is showing a big hole with their arms. So on this pairs’ turn they would show their motion, say “crater” AND then do the lava motion, say “lava” – then their turn is over.

  5. To review the vocabulary look over Volcanoes by Seymour Simon and have students identify parts of the volcano.

  6. To assess mastery, students will complete a “Valuable Volcano Vocabulary!” Quiz.


Individual Activity

Exploding Volcano

Materials:

  • “Exploding Volcano” Reproducible Lift & Look Mini-Book

  • Scissors

  • Tape

  • Colored Pencils

Instructional Steps:

  1. Pass out “Exploding Volcano” Reproducible to each student.

  2. Allow students to color the volcano, scenery, and background with colored pencils.

  3. Tell the students to cut out the three pieces along the solid black lines, as well as the solid lines on the title page.

  4. Then have the students fold page 2 along the dotted line. Place the “pull here” piece face-up behind page 2.

  5. Have the students fold the title page over page 2 and tape it.

  6. The students will then open the flap on their title pages; the remaining piece will be taped here so they can read it when they open the flap.


Small Group Activity

Scientific Experiment (Volcano Model with Toothpaste)

Materials:

  • “Volcano Model” Reproducible

  • Toothpaste

  • Scissors

  • Tape or Glue

  • Colored Pencils, Markers, or Crayons

  • Science Journals

  • Venn Diagram

Instructional Steps:

  1. Pass out “Volcano Model” Reproducible to each student.

  2. Allow students to color their models – remind them to make the model look realistic.

  3. Place students in small groups with 3 to 4 students in each group.

  4. Show the students a tube of toothpaste. Ask: “What happens when you squeeze from the bottom of the toothpaste?” Toothpaste comes out the opening at the top. Demonstrate. Ask: “What if you squeeze the toothpaste but did not take the cap off so the toothpaste had nowhere to go? Would pressure build up inside?” Yes.

  5. Remind students that this is how a volcano erupts too. Magma collects in a camber deep inside the earth. As more and more magma enters the chamber, more and more pressure builds. The magma pushes hard against the surrounding rock, opening up cracks wherever there are weak spots. Eventually one of the cracks opens almost all the way to the surface.

  6. Give each group a small tube of toothpaste. Ask them to image that the tube is the surface of the Earth. The toothpaste inside is hot, melted magma underground.

  7. Students will choose one of their volcano models to do an experiment with. The students will place the toothpaste tube underneath their volcano model and stick it through the small opening. One student will squeeze the tube. Students will make observations as the toothpaste or “magma” runs down their volcano.

  8. After students have conducted their experiment, as a group they will make one Venn diagram, comparing and contrasting their volcano model to a real volcano.

  9. Discuss as a whole class what groups found through their experiments.

  10. Have students write a paragraph in their science journals about the differences and similarities between the models we created and volcanoes.


Input:

  • Visual aid in the forms of a poster, lift and look mini-book, and volcano model.

  • Auditory learning will be reinforced through a read-aloud, class discussions, and direct instruction.

  • Kinesthetic learning will be stimulated through the hands-on science experiment as well as the vocabulary motion game.

  • Naturalistic learning will be encouraged by relating and identifying landforms and their parts in the real world.

  • Interpersonal skills will be employed in the whole class discussions, partner work, and small group science experiments.

Modeling:

  • Teacher will model construction of “Exploding Volcano” Lift & Look Mini-Book.

  • Teacher will model critical thinking about volcano formation and eruptions.

  • Teacher will assist small groups during science experiment.

Checking for Understanding:

  • Throughout the lesson the teacher with pose open-ended questions to assess the learner’s comprehension and understanding.

  • The individual’s science journals will allow the teacher to assess if concepts have been grasped by the learner throughout the unit.

  • The small group Venn diagrams and class discussion comparing and contrasting models vs. real volcanoes with also serve as a cue for understanding.

Guided Practice:

  • Guided practice will be in work throughout the science experiment, as the teacher will be assisting and giving directions to the small groups.

  • Guided practice is also present in the individual activity as the teacher is aiding in the construction of the “Exploding Volcano” mini-book.

Reteach:

Mastery Check:

  • “Valuable Volcano Vocabulary” Quiz will assess mastery.

  • Observation of responses and journal and entries throughout the lessons will serve as a mastery check.

Extension:

  • Create a classroom newspaper “The Volcanic Times” and have students write creative stories about what happened when a volcano erupted in ________. (their backyard, 2050, outer space, etc.)

  • Take a virtual field trip and “visit” a volcano.

  • Create volcano collages – one for each vocabulary term. Split the students into groups or pairs and assign each pair (or group) a word that they are responsible for finding pictures of and creating a collage with.

Provisions for Students with Special Needs:

  • If needed, pre-cut materials for “Exploding Volcano” activity.

  • If needed, pre-cut materials for “Volcano Model” Activity.

  • For the individual activity, allow the student to work with a peer.


Building My Volcano
Level: 4th grade

Curricular Areas Included: Science, Language Arts, Art

Goals/objectives:

The child will view the national geographic interactive website on volcanoes. The learner will then create his own volcano using a variety of art media.

TEKS: Science

  • 112.6 (3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to

    • (C) Represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations.

  • 126.3. Technology Applications, Grades 3-5

    • b(3) Foundations. The student complies with the laws and examines the issues regarding the use of technology in society.

      • follow acceptable use policies when using computers

    • b(7) Solving problems. The student uses appropriate computer-based productivity tools to create and modify solutions to problems.

      • use software programs with audio, video, and graphics to enhance learning experiences

    • b(8) Solving problems. The student uses research skills and electronic communication, with appropriate supervision, to create new knowledge.

      • use interactive technology environments, such as simulations, electronic science or mathematics laboratories, virtual museum field trips, or on-line interactive lessons, to manipulate information

  • 110.6 English Language Arts and Reading

    • (15) Writing/purposes. The student writes for a variety of audiences and purposes, and in a variety of forms.

      • (D) write to entertain such as to compose humorous poems or short stories

    • 16) Writing/penmanship/capitalization/punctuation. The student composes original texts, applying the conventions of written language such as capitalization, punctuation, and penmanship to communicate clearly.

    • (17) Writing/spelling. The student spells proficiently

Materials: ( per group)

  • small drink bottle

  • 60 ml water

  • 1 tablespoon baking soda

  • 1/4 cup vinegar

  • Orange food coloring

  • few drops of detergent

  • Small Square of tissue.

  • Modeling clay

Instructional Step:

  • Have students apply previously acquired knowledge of volcanoes to create a model volcano.

  • Begin by grouping students into small groups of 3-4. Give each group a small drink bottle and enough modeling clay to form the “volcano” around it.

  • Then give each group the correct measurements of water, baking soda, detergent, and vinegar. (The teacher should already have added the food coloring to the vinegar since it will easily stain clothing)

  • Instruct each group to place the water, soap, food coloring and vinegar in the drink bottle. Wrap the baking soda in the tissue and drop into the bottle. The volcano model will then erupt.

  • After the groups have erupted their volcanoes, the students will then write a creative story. The teacher will give the student the prompt "The day my volcano erupted.”

  • The students will need to use appropriate penmanship, grammar, and spelling.

Checking for Understanding

  • The teacher can assess the student’s understanding of the volcano project by generating a discussion among the students.

  • The teacher can ask the students to share their creative stories if they wish.

Resources:



Resources for Whole Unit





Name _______________

Date _____________

 



If I Was A.... ? Worksheet

Volcanoes




1. Choose any Volcano. Pretend you are this Volcano for the remaining questions.

____________________

Volcano's Name

2. Where are located? Are you active?

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

3. When was the last time you erupted? Did it cause any destruction? Explain.

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

4. How tall are you?

 

________________________________________________

5. When are you predicted to erupt again?

 

_________________________________________________

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Volcanoes to Choose From
Acongua Stromboli
Cotopaxi Surtsey

El Chichon Thera 1
Krakatau Vesuvuis
Lassen Peack Mount Mazama
Mauna Loa Mount Fuji
Mount Etna Tambora
Mount Pelee Llullaillaco
Mount Pinatubo Mount Saint Helens
Mount Tambora Nevado del Ruiz
Paricutin Colima
Unzen Soufriere
Oshima Taal
Laki Hibok-Hibok

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