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|MECHANICAL & ELECTRICAL LIST|
(August 24, 2004)
BASIC THERMAL PROCESS
· Heat loss Calculations
· Know the Heat-Transfer Process: Convection, Conduction, Radiation, Evaporation
· Latent heat vs. sensible heat
- Latent heat: change in state
- Sensible heat: change in temperature
· Understand the basic principles of thermal transfer.
· Understand the basic principles
o flanking path,
o sound dampening
· Sound Transmission Class (STC) and calculations (ie: sound transmission in a wall with different materials in different areas)
Def.: a single-number average over several frequency bands of a barrier’s ability to reduce sound. The higher the STC rating, the better the barrier’s ability to control sound transmission. STC would be crucial for party walls between two apartment units for example.....or the floor between upper and lower levels. STC, therefore, takes on different characteristics that affect the rating....such as wall/floor mass, air space etc.
· Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC) Sound absorption
Def.: arithmetic average of the absorption coefficients at 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz. It is useful as a single- number criterion for the midband effectiveness of a porous absorber. If high or low end frequencies are of interest, NRC is useless. NRC would be critical in design of an auditorium in attempt to provide optimal acoustics (reverb time, etc.), NRC, therefore, responds to actual material properties, i.e. abosorptivity, reflectance of sound.
· If you quadruple the intensity of a source how many db would it be
· Where is the best location for speaker in a lecture hall? (Front? Side? Top? Dispersed in the hall?)
· Life Cycle definitions and other cost questions.
· Do not need to know the retail price of systems, just understand which ones are more expensive to install, operate, etc.
· Power costs for an assortment of appliances...
· Estimating questions, ie: what is the most accurate estimating method?
· What estimating method would you use during D.D
· ADA dimensions for urinal
· Minimum HC elevator dimensions.
· Understand the basic principles
· Know Electrical Symbols.
· Analogy of terms between electric and hydraulic (Ampere is to electric as? is to hydraulic…)
· ohm’s law
· Identify a drawing or Images of fuse types.
· The formula for energy (power)
· What type conduit would be used underground?
· Where is Romex cabling prohibited?
· Information on weather heads
· Be familiar with interior electrical components and know how distinguish wire diagrams
· Identify parts to electrical service feed, to three other electrical components
· Resistance calculations, one that required figuring resistance with either series or parallel wiring.
· What is the average time a person should wait for and elevator?
· Escalator. Which type would be best in a certain situation? What degree an escalator is.
· Costs related to different types of elevators and reasons for choosing one over the other.
· Understand the different types of elevators and the time and cost impacts they have on construction.
· Calculations on Elevator hoist way areas, (simple math)…
· Electric vs. hydraulic etc. For example, if an apartment building is being constructed, which type of elevator would be most economical?
· What size or type of vent should be used in an elevator shaft?
· Why is a sump pump used in a hydraulic elevator?
· Fire protection systems...and devices. (MEEB)
· Know the names of the 4 stages of a fire and what occurs in each.
· Know the various types of heat/smoke detectors
· Fire sprinkler systems...
· Automatic venting hatch for fire protection.
· Fire dampers (Where they go, what material they are made off...)
· Sprinkler layout criteria
HISTORY IN MEP
· Roman aqueduct
· Corbu’s Notre Dame at Ron champ - Lighting
· the Pantheon in Rome - Lighting
· The fan window from Gothic architecture
· Thermal mass and ventilation in one of Palladio's Villas.
· Acoustical problem found in a Greek theater?
· Understand the basic principles
· Identify light fixture types
· Calculations on opaque wall and windows
· Be familiar with lighting and applications.
· Study the different methods to calculate lighting needs…..Zonal Cavity/Lumen Method etc. (if you have to calculate the amount of light needed using the zonal cavity method, remember that the distance used if from the top of work surface)
· Formulas are given to you on Lighting Calculations; just understand how to use it.
· Lumen calculations from data given, use formula from References
· Foot candle, Illumination.
· Light charts, candlepower distribution curves
· Review windows and skylights, especially as they relate to fire and smoke venting.
· Pay attention to the Electric / Light chapter and the different bulbs and ballast systems.
· Know the different Color temperatures for natural vs. bulb lighting (MEEB goes over a bunch more…and it has a color temperature chart that is good to know)
· Which type of light has a green tint?
· Questions on daylight factors. Be sure to read over Day lighting System (using the MEEB)
· lighting application for different spaces and uses
· What type of lighting would you find on a football field?
· What lighting is best if the ceiling is black? Direct, indirect…..
· Know the various types of HVAC systems
· What climate conditions they are best suited for which system, their cost & types of building’s they lend themselves. Identify them in diagram form & in terms of components
· What climates will a heat pump work in and what climates should using a heat pump be avoided?
· VAV, Single Zone vs. Multizone, fan coil system, Hydronic heating system - identify from diagram,
· Why you would choose a two pipe versus a three pipe, etc.
· Understand the refrigeration cycle.
· Know the various parts of steam heating equipment how it works and identification of parts.
· Cover details of components, systems, diagrams etc. Relief valves, flush valves, main feeders, flue controls pressure alarms, Pressure relief valve. etc.
· Get to know the parts of a chiller and a condenser unit. & boiler diagram
· Which system is better in a long linear building, a three pipe system or a fan coil system? Certainly one type of system fits better into a particular building design. example: single-duct constant volume –least expensive vs. Fan coil system – expensive installation cost due to using forced air
· Review boilers, Heating systems and furnaces diagrams, too.
· heat generation equipment diagrams
· AC and distribution systems diagrams. This also includes advantages and disadvantages to the systems, which is good preparation for making the judgment calls necessary at exam time.
· Ch 15 and 16 (mechanical and electrical) of AGS has tons of diagrams of all sorts of useful things, including smaller parts, which would be useful to know in this context.
· Interior zone HVAC systems diagrams
· I.D. an HVAC duct type. (turning vane or splitter damper).
· Look through all the charts and figures in MEEB
· Understand shading devices, vertical fins, horizontal light shelves, etc.
· Equipment part identifications, i.e. wiring trough, temp.
· Plan diagrams with location of valves asking what kind of valve?
· Air changes in a room.
· The sun chart
· Heating in Canada (??)
· calculations on the R and U assemblies
· Questions on the psychometric chart and thermal comfort...
· a smoke pencil (used to test for air infiltration)
· spread/throw diffuser
· Heat pump vs. Boiler
- Heat pump: a device that warms or cools a building by transferring heat from a relatively low-temperature reservoir to one at a higher temperature. These usually take hear from the (cooler) earth and bring it into the house or vise-versa for cooling the house. A fridge is another example, taking heat out of the fridge and putting it into the room.
- boiler: a tank with a firebox or electric coil that heats a liquid which is then pumped through the building to heat it.
· DX systems & VAV Systems
- DX (direct expansion): an alternative (and more popular choice) to a chilled water system in HVAC. Is used to cool air containing water vapor. In a DX system, a refrigerant is used to remove sensible and latent heat from the air and water vapor mixture. With a chilled water system, a refrigerant is used to chill water. The chilled water is then used to remove sensible and latent heat from the air and water vapor mixture.
- VAV (variable air volume): a fan system HVAC. Provides many zones for control at relatively low cost. Often a single air handler with local boxes for each space. Can be used with either DX or condenser systems
· Splitter Dampers vs. Turning Vanes
- Splitter Damper: Not only directs the flow of air but also “controls” the volume of air (can be noisy)
- Turning Vane: directs air around a bend in a duct without adding noise to the system. Directs the flow of air.
GAS & VALVES
· Know your valves! (review Graphic Standards p. 687)
1. Ball Valve
2. Butterfly Valve
3. Check Valve
4. Drain Valve
5. Gate Valve
6. Globe Valve
7. Needle Valve
8. Plug Valve
9. Pressure Relief & Pressure Control Valves
10. Safety & Emergency Shut-off Valves
11. Angle Valve - technical term for hose bib
· I.D. a valve that you would use for gas in a doctor's office. ANSWER: ball valve, classified as a quarter turn valve, is used for medical gas service
· Methane and CO2 Gases are released in a room and it is divided in 3 vertical sections...where does the gas accumulate.
· What is the mounting height for detectors? Carbon Monoxide (CO) – Mount at breathing level (4-5 feet above the ground). Heavier than air (propane, LP, refrigerants) – one foot above the floor. Lighter than air (methane, natural gas, hydrogen) – one foot below the ceiling
· Understand the basic principles
· Diameter of pipes -- rainfall calculation, roof drain
· How do you make water potable?
· There was a diagram of a water heater. Where would you put the shut off valve & Pressure relief in water tank?
· Study the difference between Vent Stack and Stack Vent very WELL
· Study how to vent plumbing fixtures, Plumbing systems diagrams, & Water supply distributions systems.
· 6” rise with 1% slope results in what length of run?
· ID a shower drain. Know Various types of floor traps,
· Plumbing codes - How many WCs, Urinals etc required based on the code provided by them. Fixture calculation based on given chart. Know how to determine the minimum piping diameter (fixture units) from tables (provided on reference section of test).
· Be familiar with septic tanks, sanitary waste disposal and cisterns--and other various sewage waste disposal systems.
· What type of sewage system would you use if you have a high water table? (look at pictures and diagrams in MEEB)
· Static Head, Defined as the pressure, measured in inches of water, available to overcome friction in the entire system.
· What size water pipe is needed to push water up x amount of feet.
· What valve is used in building trap & before Sewer?
· Thrust block
· Designation for plastic pipes
· Acid Rain
· Trombe wall, overhangs and vertical fins...
· solar energy - passive systems and solar charts & solar path of sun
SUGGESTED READING AND WEB SITES
· Mechanical & Electrical Equipment for Buildings (MEEB) by Stein and Reynolds
Publication: New York John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (US), 2002.
(gives good breakdown of cost associated with HVAC systems)
Publication: New York John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (US), 2001.
IMPORTANT MEEB CHAPTERS.
· Part I Energy Overview
Chapter 1 - read, no in-depth stud
Chapter 2 – read, study
Chapter 3 – read, no in-depth study
· Part II Thermal Control
Chapter 4 – read, study
Chapters 5,6 & 7 – review diagrams
· Part III Water and Waste
Chapters 8, 9 & 10 – lightly read, pay attention to drawings, diagrams, ect. Chapter 11 – skip
Chapter 12 – lightly skim
· Part IV Fire Protection
Chapter 13 – must read
· Part V Electricity
Chapter 14 – read 14.1 through 14.11 and 14.21 (p. 878)
Chapter 15 – read 15.3 through 15.7
Chapter 16 – read 16.6 through 16.10
Chapter 17 – read 17.3
· Part VI Illumination
Chapter 18 – must read, study in-depth
Chapter 19 – read 19.4, 19.8, 19.16-19.21, 19.27-19.30 and 19.36. Also, be familiar with incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge
Chapter 20 – read 20.10-20.15 and 20.33-20.40
Chapter 21 - skip
· Part VII Signal Equipment – skip, use study guides
· Part VIII Transportation – skip, use ALS
· Part IX Acoustics
Chapters 26 & 27 – read lightly and use study guides for in-depth study
· Ch. 4 of MEEB p. 116 – 8th addition; a composite assembly of building materials in place at the site. Understand drawing.
· Security system differences
· Moisture Barrier vs. Vapor Barrier - same thing, should be on the warm side of the wall to prevent condensation on the insulation. Not to be confused with building wraps like Tyvek which are vapor/wind retarders and will allow wall cavity moisture to exit