1. Living from approximately 4 to 7 million years ago, fragments of over 300 individuals have been discovered. Living along the northern Rift valley of east




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Name1. Living from approximately 4 to 7 million years ago, fragments of over 300 individuals have been discovered. Living along the northern Rift valley of east
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ST. LOUIS OPEN II – 2000

Round Fourteen
Toss-Up Questions
1. Living from approximately 4 to 2.7 million years ago, fragments of over 300 individuals have been discovered. Living along the northern Rift valley of east Africa, primarily around Hadar, Ethiopia, this early hominid displays surprising human characteristics, such as bipedalism, as indicated by the articulation of hip joints and pelvises. Until 1994, this was the earliest hominid species yet discovered, having been replaced by Australopithecus anamensis. FTP, identify this australopithecine, the best example of which would be the skeleton fragments of an individual nicknamed “Lucy.”
Answer: Australopithecus afarensis
2. Its text comes from the Vercelli Book and it was probably written at the end of the seventh century. The prelude describes how the title object, glittering with gold and gems, changes its appearance to something unadorned and bloodied, and then back again to an object of triumph. The unknown poet of this work employed prosopopeia to make the title object speak and relate how it was cut down and transformed in to a figure of Christ’s suffering. The object then relates how it was later rediscovered and glorified. FTP, identify this medieval English poem that relates the story of the Cross.
Answer: The Dream of the Rood
3. Its funds came from the Emergency Relief Appropriation of 1935 and it succeeded such earlier organizations as the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, which was also directed by Harry Hopkins. By its termination in 1943, this government agency had employed almost 9 million workers in such groups as the National Youth Administration and the Federal Writers, Theatre, and Arts Projects. FTP, identify this Depression-era agency instituted by FDR to put the unemployed to work on public projects.
Answer: WPA or Work Projects Administration (accept Works Progress Administration)
4. It was first discovered by James Cronin and Val Fitch, who observed this occurrence by studying the asymmetrical mixing of neutral kaons with their antiparticles, though this phenomenon has not been observed in kaon decay. Explained by the Standard Model and by predicted by superweak theory, the results of this phenomenon have given rise to the conditions necessary for baryogenesis. FTP, identify this phenomenon that explains the current ratio of matter to antimatter in the universe.
Answer: CP violation or charge-parity violation or charge conjugation-parity violation
5. He founded the short-lived magazine The Pioneer and contributed articles to The Dial. The first editor of The Atlantic Monthly, some of his most famous poems include Washers of the Shroud, Commemeration Ode, and the children’s favorite The Vision of Sir Launfal. His A Fable for Critics was published in 1848, along with his most famous work, two series of prose and poetry on the Mexican and Civil Wars. FTP, identify this American poet and essayist, the author of The Biglow Papers.
Answer: James Russell Lowell
6. Massacres at Cairo in 1805 and 1811 ended their power. Two ruling dynasties, named after places where the troops who seized power had been quartered, sprang up from this class: the Bahri, made up of Turks and Mongols; and the Bujri, made up of Circassians. When Egypt came under the rule of the Ottomans in 1517, beys, or governors, from this class still ruled nominally. They were defeated at the Battle of the Pyramids by Napoleon in 1798. FTP, identify this class of purchased slaves converted to Islam who advanced themselves to high military posts in Egypt.
Answer: Mamelukes
7. Famous early ones include those by Notker Labeo and Otfried of Weissenbur. The Heidelberg, or Palatinate, one was compiled by Caspar Olevianus and Zacharias Ursinus at the request of Elector Frederick III, and the first official Roman Catholic one was created by the Council of Trent and was known as the one of Pius V. The first one was probably written by Alcuin, and the one of the Church of England is published in the Book of Common Prayer, explaining the Baptismal Covenant, the Creed, and the Lord’s Prayer. FTP, identify this manual that explains Christianity in question-answer form.
Answer: catechism
8. It took seven years of training by a poet that lived by the river Boyne, many years of teaching by the druidess Bodbal, much practice with weaponry taught by Fiachel, and consumption of the Salmon of Knowledge for this man to avenge his father’s death. Before he was born, his father was killed in battle by Goll mac Morna, the leader of a rival clan. When he was finally ready, he gathered 150 of the best Fianna warriors and finally got his revenge. FTP, identify this hero of Irish legend and protagonist of the Fenian Cycle.
Answer: Finn McCool or Finn mac Cumhail
9. Currently a bricklayer in his hometown of Aiken, South Carolina, he was featured in the July 31, 2000 issue of the Sports Illustrated “Where are They Now?” series. His fame as perhaps the most publicized rookie ever began when coach Mike Ditka put him in the backfield in 1984 where he moved the pile on both his carries. He was featured in The Superbowl Shuffle, prior to Superbowl XX, where his only line in the song was, “I may be large, but I’m no dumb cookie.” FTP, identify this ex-player for the London Moncarchs, Philadelphia, and the Bears most famous for his kitchen nickname.
Answer: William “the RefridgeratorPerry (accept either name, or just the “Fridge”)
10. While a combination of sodium metal and ammonia is used to produce trans-isomerized compounds, this is used primarily for its syn addition properties, which create a cis-isomerized product. It is composed of a powdered barium sulfate base that is coated with palladium. The palladium coating is slightly poisoned with a bicyclic compound known as quinoline. FTP, identify this catalyst important in organic chemistry for converting alkynes into alkenes.
Answer: Lindlar’s catalyst
11. The principles of this art movement were expressed in the Realist Manifesto, which espoused an admiration for machines and technology, and the use of industrial materials such as plastic, steel, and glass. Its members called themselves artist-engineers and it was exemplified by the bronze rays of Antoine Pevsner the Spiral Theme of his brother Naum Gabo. This movement was initiated in 1913 by the abstract geometric constructions of Vladimir Tatlin. FTP, identify this Russian art movement that took its name from the principle “to construct” art.
Answer: Constructivism
12. They are composed of nine sets of microtubule triplets arranged in a ring structure, and they are usually arranged at right angles to each other. It was recently proven that their absence during cell division does not affect the formation of the spindle apparatus. While absent in prokaryotes, pairs of these structures migrate to opposite ends of eukaryotic cells at the start of mitosis and help anchor the spindle fibers that attach to the chromosome’s centromere. FTP, identify these cylindrical structures that help organize microtubule assembly during mitosis.
Answer: centrioles
13. The popularity of his writings benefited from his association with the Scipionic Circle. Originally a slave from Carthage, he took his master’s name upon his freedom, adding the cognomen “Afer” to indicate his origins. Thought to have translated all 108 of Menander’s works, his works evidence influence from Apollodorus, as well. His six extant comedies include Phormio, The Girl from Andros, and The Eunuch. FTP, identify this Roman playwright often paired with Plautus as one of the great comedians of the early Republic.
Answer: Terence
14. After receiving his Ph.D. from Harvard at the age of 18, he went on to win the Bôcher Prize in 1933 for his work on Tauberian theorems. He also developed a system of equations to describe the randomness of Brownian motion. He is best known, however, for the development of a science that deals with not only the automatic control of machinery by computers and other electronic devices, but also the study of the human brain and nervous system and the relationship between the two communication and control systems. FTP, identify this American mathematician and founder of cybernetics.
Answer: Norbert Wiener
15. Its name is derived from an Old Irish word meaning “runaway” or “fugitive” and was first applied to mid-17th century Irishmen who, dispossessed by the English, became outlaws. It first came into political use as a term of opprobrium to supporters of James II, and became the party of landed aristocracy after the Glorious Revolution. Today, the term is still often used as a synonym for a conservative since those known by this term became associated with the Conservative Party. FTP, identify this political term used to describe supporters of the Crown during the American Revolution.
Answer: Tory
16. It is 290 feet high, 42 feet thick, and 33 feet wide. Declared a national monument in 1910, it can only be hiked to with permission of the Navajo Nation, on whose land it stands, and famous visitors include Zane Grey and Theodore Roosevelt. Otherwise, it is accessibly by boat from Lake Powell near Glen Canyon. It is made of salmon-pink sandstone that spans 275 feet in an arc over Bridge Canyon. FTP, identify this landform, the world’s largest natural bridge located in southern Utah.
Answer: Rainbow Bridge National Monument
17. He is stripped of his officer’s certificate when he abandons his damaged ship. Sent by the owner of the trading concern, Stein, to an island, he defeats Sherif Ali to become a hero. He loves the stepdaughter of Cornelius, the half-native Jewel, and his best friend and second-in-command is Dain Waris, who leads the initial unsuccessful attack on Gentleman Brown. The ship’s captain and narrator of the story in which he appears is Marlow. FTP, identify this hero of Patusan and title character of a work by Joseph Conrad.
Answer: Lord or Tuan Jim
18. According to this philosophy, man is designated “Dasein,” or “there being,” because he is defined by the fact that he exists. The investigation of Being is continually faced with possibilities from which the existent must make a selection and then commit himself or herself. Though first addressed by Descartes, its modern form was derived by Kierkegaard, who stated the problem of existence as primarily the problem of Being. FTP, identify this modern branch of philosophy espoused by Jean-Paul Sartre and Martin Heidegger.
Answer: Existentialism
19. It was nearly one thousand years old when it was blown down in August 1856. When Sir Edmund Andros was appointed governor-general of New England in 1687, he was sent to Hartford to procure the colonial charter. The colonists, loath to surrender the documents, carried them to the council chamber, appearing to submit. However, during the debate, the lights were extinguished and the documents were stolen and hidden at this site until 1689, when Andros was deposed. FTP, identify this large white tree that served as the hiding place for the Connecticut charter.
Answer: Charter Oak
20. Schumann commented that this piece, perhaps the composer’s most famous, glows with “the bloom of youth.” It was written after the composer read the translations of Schlegel, and the thirteen movements of this incidental music underwrite the characters and scenes of the play on which it is based. For example, an interval in the ninth movement imitates an ass’ bray to depict Bottom. Also, the chords used to signify the entrance of Oberon are reworked in the finale. Featuring the famous Wedding March, FTP, identify this work of Mendelssohn based on a play by Shakespeare.
Answer: A Midsummer Night’s Dream
ST. LOUIS OPEN II – 2000

Round Fourteen
Bonus Questions
1. Identify the following about a certain work of English literature FTPE.


  1. The main character of this romance novel published in 1894 impersonates the king of Ruritania, who is being held captive in the title location. After securing the king’s release, he surrenders the crown and the hand of his beloved Princess Flavia.


Answer: The Prisoner of Zenda


  1. What British author wrote The Prisoner of Zenda?


Answer: Anthony Hope Hawkins


  1. Identify the main character of The Prisoner of Zenda, who impersonates the king.


Answer: Rudolf Rassendyl (accept either name)
2. Identify the following concerning the Oxford Movement FTPE.


  1. The Oxford movement began in 1833 with the sermon On the National Apostasy by this man. Citing a recent statute abolishing ten bishoprics in Ireland, he warned the Church of England against the threat of domination by secular authorities.


Answer: John Keble


  1. This major figure of the Oxford movement wrote The Dream of Gerontius, which inspired a work by Elgar, and Apologia pro Vita Sua, an account of his spiritual development.


Answer: John Henry Newman


  1. Support for the movement increased when it was joined by this theologian, author of such works as Eirecon, an attempt to find a compromise between Roman Catholicism and Anglicanism, and The Minor Prophets, with Commentary. Critics of the movement derisively named it after this man.


Answer: Edward Bouverie Pusey [Editor’s note: They were called “Puseyites.”]
3. Identify these physical constants from their values FTPE.


  1. 8.854 x 10-12 farads per meter


Answer: permittivity of free space (accept the archaic dialectric constant from old people)


  1. 6.626 x 10-34 joules times seconds


Answer: Planck’s constant


  1. 1.09737 x 105 reciprocal centimeters


Answer: Rydberg constant
4. Identify these early 19th century treaties from descriptions FTPE.


  1. This first “disarmament” treaty is still in effect. Signed in 1817 between the U.S. and Great Britain, it called for both nations to cease maintaining armed fleets on the Great Lakes.


Answer: Rush-Bagot Treaty


  1. Under this 1819 treaty with Spain, the U.S. received the Florida territory, and in exchange agreed to assume $5 million in debts owed to American merchants.


Answer: Adams-Onís Treaty


  1. Signed on Christmas Eve, 1814, this treaty effectively ended the War of 1812.


Answer: Treaty of Ghent
5. Identify these electronic musical instruments from descriptions FTPE.


  1. Invented in 1930 by its namesake inventor, this instrument produces notes by electrical contacts between wire and a metal rail. Hindemith wrote a Konzertstück for this instrument and strings in 1931.


Answer: trautonium


  1. Invented in 1920, it was first called an etherophone. Its whip antenna induces amplified sounds when the player’s hand approaches it, and pedals alter the volume. A. F. Pashchenko’s Symphonic Mystery calls for this instrument.


Answer: theremin


  1. This instrument was invented in 1906 and uses electromagnets to imitate musical tones. It disappeared before WWI and weighed an extraordinary 200 tons.


Answer: telharmonium
6. Identify the following terms about moles from descriptions FTPE.


  1. This is a measure of the number of moles of solute present per kilogram of solvent.


Answer: molality


  1. This is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one mole of a substance by one Kelvin at constant pressure.


Answer: molar heat capacity


  1. This is the number of moles of a particular component in a mixture divided by the total number of moles of all components.


Answer: mole fraction
7. Identify these battles of the American Revolution from descriptions FTPE.


  1. This battle was the result of a two-pronged British attack on Albany. Barry St. Leger’s troops met Nicolas Herkimer’s en route on August 6, 1777 and defeated them, mortally wounding Herkimer. However, relief forces under Benedict Arnold saved the day for the Americans.


Answer: Battle of Oriskany


  1. In this1776 battle, the British under Howe evacuated Boston and attempted to capture New York City, encamped on Staten Island. The Americans under Washington escaped by crossing the East River to Manhattan, leaving 1000 soldiers to be captured by the Brits.


Answer: Battle of Long Island


  1. This was the last important battle of the Carolina campaign fought on September 8, 1781. Forces under Green attacked the British under Colonel Stewart, stopping briefly to loot the British camp. The Brits secured better positions, but eventually retreated to Charleston.


Answer: Battle of Eutaw Springs
8. Identify these contemporary philosophers FTPE.


  1. Starting off as a linguistic philosopher, this American espouses a sort of neo-Pragmatism. His works include Consequences of Pragmatism and Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity.


Answer: Richard Rorty


  1. His work with the social contract has had a profound impact on ethics and political theory. His 1971 A Theory of Justice discusses his “veil of ignorance” symbol.


Answer: John Rawls


  1. This philosopher and historian collaborated with Robert Hutchins on Great Books of the Western World and went on to head the San Francisco Institute for Philosophical Research. His numerous works include How to Read a Book and The Difference of Man and the Difference it Makes.


Answer: Mortimer Jerome Adler
9. Given the largest island in an island group, identify that island group FTPE.


  1. Bougainville


Answer: Solomon Islands


  1. Rarotonga


Answer: Cook Islands


  1. Jersey


Answer: Channel Islands
10. Identify these Pre-Raphaelite painters from works FTPE.


  1. He painted several Shakespearean themes, including Ophelia and Ferdinand Lured by Ariel. Autumn Leaves was another of his famous works.


Answer: John Millais


  1. An art student along with Millais, this artist’s Our English Coasts was a political allegory about a flock of sheep. His The Eve of St. Agnes was inspired by the Keats poem.


Answer: William Holman Hunt


  1. This man was the grandfather of a famous author and created such famous works as Work and The Last of England.


Answer: Ford Madox Brown
11. Identify these works by Philip Roth FTPE.


  1. Perhaps the most famous novel by Roth, this work depicts the title character torn between the traditional values of his Jewish mother and his passion for WASP women.


Answer: Portnoy’s Complaint


  1. In this “Kafka-esque” work, the central character wakes up one day to find himself transformed into a giant mammary gland.


Answer: The Breast


  1. Written almost entirely in dramatic dialog, this short work by Roth is a parody of the Nixon administration. The main character, Tricky, responds comically to various allegations.


Answer: Our Gang
12. Identify these various biological tests FTPE.


  1. In this test, which measures the mutagenic strength of chemicals, the suspected mutagen is mixed with a culture of bacteria. The culture is then observed for bacteria that are histidine-dependent and histidine-independent.


Answer: Ames test


  1. This test allows one to view the distribution of chromosomes in dividing nuclei. The test involves treating a tissue sample with HCl and then Schiff’s reagent, which forms a magenta-colored compound.


Answer: Feulgen’s test


  1. In this test a few drops of the reagent, consisting of resorcinol crystals dissolved in equal amounts of water and HCl, are heated with the test solution. The formation of a red precipitate indicates the presence of ketonic sugars such as fructose.


Answer: Seliwanoff’s test
13. Identify these novels about superfluous men FTPE, or FFPE if you need the author.


  1. (10 points) Frightened away by his love for Natalya Alekseyevna, the title character of this 1856 novel typifies the idealists known to the author while a student in Berlin. He dies during the 1848 Revolution in France while trying to rally troops.


(5 points) Ivan Turgenev
Answer: Rudin


  1. (10 points) Narrated by Maksim Maksimych, this novel describes Pechorin, who poses as a world-weary wanderer. He must fight a duel with Grushnitsky.


(5 points) Mikhail Lermontov
Answer: A Hero of Our Time


  1. (10 points) The hero and title character of this novel is contrasted to his friend Shtolts, a hard-working and ambitious man. He marries Agafya Pshenitsyna because it is more convenient for him rather than his true love Olga Ilinskaya.


(5 points) Ivan Goncharov
Answer: Oblomov
14. Identify the following units of radiation FTPE.


  1. This is the SI unit of dose equivalent.


Answer: Sv or sievert


  1. This is the SI unit of absorbed dose. It is equal to 1 joule per kilogram of absorbed radiation.


Answer: Gy or gray


  1. This is the SI unit of radiation activity, and is equal to one spontaneous nuclear transition per second.


Answer: Bq or becquerel
15. Identify these Russian publications FTSNOP.


  1. (10 points) Russian for “news,” this was the daily newspaper that spoke as the authoritative voice of the government of the USSR on administrative and foreign affairs. After the USSR’s dissolution, it became an independent newspaper with a centrist political stance.


Answer: Izvestiya


  1. (5 points) Izvestiya was second only to this Soviet daily, the largest and most authoritative in the USSR and the official voice of the Communist Party from 1922 to 1991. Its name means “truth.”


Answer: Pravda


  1. (15 points) A group of staff members from the original Pravda started a newspaper with the original name in 1992, but a Moscow court ordered them to change the name in 1998. The new Pravda now goes by this name.


Answer: Slovo or The Word
16. Identify these seers from various mythologies FTPE.


  1. The charioteer of Dhritarashtra, this man in the Mahabharata is given prophetic powers in order to relate the events of the central battle of the epic.


Answer: Sanjaya


  1. This goddess with a very mundane name is the main figure of the Völuspá, a poetic discourse on how the universe was formed an on how all the Norse gods shall perish.


Answer: the Seeress


  1. This blind seer from Greek myth earned himself a set of breasts when he proclaimed women had it easier. He figures prominently in the legend of Oedipus.


Answer: Tiresias
17. Identify the movie from quotes, 30-20-10.


  1. “Back when I was picking beans in Guatemala, we used to make fresh coffee; right off the trees, I mean. That was good. This is shit, but hey, I'm in a police station.”




  1. “How do you shoot the devil in the back? What if you miss?”




  1. “Keaton once said, ‘I don't believe in God, but I’m afraid of him.’ Well, I believe in God, and the only thing that scares me is Keyser Soze.”


Answer: The Usual Suspects
18. Identify these Nigerian writers from descriptions FTPE.


  1. This playwright’s works include The Lion and the Jewel, Kongi’s Harvest, and A Play of Giants. He received the 1986 Nobel Prize in Literature.


Answer: Wole Soyinka


  1. One of the most famous poets of Nigeria, this man died while serving as a major in the Biafran army. His only two published poetry collections are Heavensgate and Limits, published in 1962 and 1964, respectively.


Answer: Christopher Okigbo


  1. This contemporary Nigerian novelist has written such works as In the Dithch, The Bride Price, and Kehinde. She is best known for her 1979 novel The Joys of Motherhood, which portrays the changing role of women in Nigerian society.


Answer: Buchi Emecheta
19. Identify these urban theories from sociology F15PE.


  1. This theory is a model of land use in which a city grows from several independent points rather than from one central business district. Each point acts as a growth center for a particular kind of land use, such as industry, retail, or high-quality housing. As these points expand, they merge to form one urban area.


Answer: multiple-nuclei theory


  1. This is a hypothetical pattern of land use within an urban area, in which different activities occur at different distances from the urban center. First suggested by American sociologist E. W. Burgess in1925, it states that towns expand outward evenly from an original core so that each zone grows by gradual colonization into the next outer ring.


Answer: concentric-ring theory
20. Identify the following concerning the first voyage around the globe FTPE.


  1. This man was the first explorer to circumnavigate the globe.


Answer: Ferdinand Magellan


  1. Magellan didn’t actually circumnavigate the globe, as he died in battle while trying to conquer this Filipino island under the prompting of Humabon, a chief on the island of Cebu.


Answer: Mactan


  1. This was the Filipino chieftain who ruled the island of Mactan that slew Magellan and most of his crew. For killing a bunch of white folks, he is now widely regarded as the first Filipino hero.


Answer: Lapu-Lapu




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